Database Recovery Concepts

The process of solve any type of database failures, quickly and without data loss and keep database high available is called database recovery.The main elements of database recovery is the most recent database backup.If you maintains database backup efficiently, then database recovery is very straight forward process.

The components and technologies of database is to configure to minimize or no data loss and keep database for open, includes

* Checkpoints

* Control file

* Online redolog files

* Archived redo log file

* Flash Recovery Area

Recovery Technologies

* Database Flash back technology

* Open database in Archive log mode

* Implement database high availability features like RAC, DATAGUARD,steams etc.

Components of database recovery

Checkpoints:- Checkpoint (CKPT) in oracle database is a mandatory background process. This process works in concert with the database writer process (DBWn) to manage the amount of time required for instance recovery. Checkpoint in oracle occurs when manual or automatic log switch occurs. FIRST_START_MTTR_TARGET parameter can be adjusted to control checkpoints as a result to improve instance recovery.

Control file – Control file is a metadata repository for database. It keeps all information about structure of the database. Control file is a very critical for database operation, so as being a DBA,you should maintain at minimum two copies of control file ( Oracle recommend three ) and save these in a different disk to same the control file disk failures.

Multiplexing control file

* Through Init.ora

* Through SPFILE

Multiplexing control file on init.ora file though CONTROL_FILE initialization parameter

CONTROL_FILES =(‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/ctlorcl01.ctl’,’/u02/app/oracle/oradata/prod/ctlorcl02.ctl’,’/u03/app/oracle/oradata/prod/ctlorcl03.ctl’)

Storing control file into multiple location,it protect control files from single point of failure. In multiplexing control file configuration, Oracle updates all the control files at a time, but uses only one,first one listed in the CONTROL_FILES parameter.When a single controlfile is corrupt, then DBA can simply copy a good one to that location or other location and make changing in the CONTROl_FILE parameter in init.ora file, resolve the issues.

Through SPFILE

We can dynamically set or change the location of the control file using SPFILE concept using the following command.




‘/u03/app/oracle/oradata/prod/ctlorcl03.ctl’) SCOPE=SPFILE;

The parameter will get effects when restart the oracle instance.

Multiplexing redo log files

The information in the online redolog files are very important for database recovery. For safe guard these files against any kind of damage you can configure multiple copies of online redolog files in different disk location. All multiplex copies of redolog files are same in size and keep in a group. Each redolog file in a group is called members. LGWR background process, writes redo information to all identical members of a group,It is a best practice to protect redolog file from single point of failure. When multiplexing redolog files, members of a group should keep in different disks so that one disk failure will not affect the normal database operation.For normal database operation at least two redo log groups is required.

Creating new logfile group

We can create new redolog groups using the following command.


GROUP 4 (‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo0401.log’,


‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo0403.log’ ) SIZE 10M;

We can add new member to an existing group using the following command.


‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo0401.log’ TO GROUP 3;

Renaming Log members

Following steps to be follow to rename log members

1. Shutdown database.

2. Copy/rename redolog file to new location with operating system command

3. startup database with STARTUP MOUNT command

4. Execute SQL> ALTER DATABSE RENAME FILE ‘oldfilename’ TO ‘newfilename’


Dropping redolog groups


Chrome Error – How Do I Fix Google Chrome Error?

Has there been a kind of Chrome error in your Google Chrome web browser? That is not something unique happened to you. Over the time most Chrome users become victim to various browser related errors. Major irritants among there errors are the entire browser crash and the AW snap error.

In the first type of error there is a dreadful total crash of the browser. Most people can not even open the web browser. When they try to open it an error message appears which says, Whoa! Google Chrome Has Crashed. Restart Now.’ However, upon restarting nothing happens. One is left with recently installed settings and bookmarks about to be lost. There is, however, a mild instance of this error in which the browser does open but it can not perform well. Sometimes it either closes down or keep sending annoying error messages.

If you are facing the second type of error it is wise to back up all of your browser data and either synchronize it or save it in your computer hard disk. You can save the bookmarks in computer and later import these bookmarks in a newly installed web browser.

The second type or error is also irritating. In that error the web browser suddenly stops displaying the web pages. One has to reload the web pages many times to expect it to start working like normal. But in some intense cases this AW Snap error is not dealt upon refreshing the browser.

These two errors can be linked to the file association issues. The file association references are the important components of the registry database in Windows. The Windows registry is a very sensitive area and acts like computer brain as it stores information about software, hardware and the programs in the computer system.

If there occurs an error in the registry it can severely effect our computer. Systems can crash, freeze and hang due to the registry errors. Not to mention files do not open properly like Google Chrome error in our example.

Now the question is how to fix the Chrome error easily? You must try to identify the cause first of all. Then you shall repair registry to fix this issue.

A registry repair scan, which has the power to fix file association errors, will help you to find the solution for Google chrome error.

Recently I had suffered from it too. I conducted many scans but nothing worked for me.

All the Reasons to Use a Pen Drive

Pen drives or USB flash players are one of the latest storage devices which are both removable and insert able. All USB flash players are portable and very smaller in their size and it is available in the market with different styles and models. Why are they known as USB flash players? The answer is that it has flash memory capacity that is used in it. Normally it connects to the computer motherboard through the pen drive slot. The original name of this gadget is USB flash memory, but to catch the customer’s attention the manufacturers have given this particular name as pen drive.

A pen drive is a sleek and a compact computer gadget which is used as a memory flash for transferring data from one to other. It is a plug and play device. It as simply plugging into any USB port and the computer automatically detects it as another removable drive. It is possible to read, write, copy, delete and move data from hard disk to it and vice versa. It is also possible to play MP3 files, run any applications view videos or even take high quality digital photos directly from it.

There is variety of pen drives in the market. Professional models which has a high performance flash memory and performs up to read and write 20 MB- the fastest in the world. This flash memory stick comes with an LED indicator, boot function, and write and delete protection. It has got maximum weight of 22 grams. Mini USB pen-drive is another variety of it which has got same technical specifications of professional models but it comes with key ring. Because of how small it is, one can easily fit it into their pockets and are designed to imitate a small pen or pencil, hence being named “pen” drive.

Why pen drives are used more now days? What is the advantage of using this jump drive? The advantage is easily accessible and common for all. The main benefit of using it is that its scratch and dust proof. It can be easily carried from one place to another manages every day carrying and abuse. It helps to take some important data from one place to another easily, it is very much portable. The working of it is also very simple and easy. You should only connect it the USB plot. Professional models are costly comparing to the normal mini pen drives. The types of pen drives are pen drive professional, USB micro, USB mini, USNB compact, USB HDD-2GO, USB business drive. The last two of them are ultra fast data transfer and compact.

USB pen-drives are the best when it comes to removable storage device because of its portability and features that are easy to use. It is highly durable sleek and compact to the consumers. They are quiet suitable for casual users and are resistant to damage or other problems. They are versatile because of its ability to be used for many different things and can be easily used by students, employees, and network administrators.

The Pros and Cons of Network Attached Storage (NAS)

As the increase in technology becomes more advanced, so do the methods of data recovery. Data recovery has become a need for personal and business reasons, but for businesses a poor disaster recover or data loss plan can lead to the loss of extremely important data that cannot be recovered. While this seems like an issue that can be solved, the loss of data for some businesses can cost thousands or even millions of revenue dollars. For private users, it may not be the loss of millions of dollars, but it can mean the loss of an integral set of information that costs even the personal users many dollars.

With the increasing advancement of data storage, the use of data recovery has also tried to parallel its sister component. Rack and virtual drives have become the new way to save large amounts of data on an array of large network drives. Network Attached Storage, or NAS, has become an official method to store large amounts of data. This type of technology is mostly used in medium to large enterprises and it gives the corporation an added layer of data recovery and fail over solutions.

Pros of Network Attached Storage:

The advantage of NAS is the consolidation of storage platforms for administrators. It is much easier to collaborate all servers onto one machine with an array of drives faster than any standalone server on the market. The other advantage is the administrative headache of managing any failures or other types of typical issues that can affect each, individual machine. Basically, the use of NAS consolidates a bunch of servers and their issues into one, easy to manage machine that is quick and easy to restore any lost data across a network. This leaves an incredibly easier way to manage large corporate data that spans across multiple offices and even mobile locations.

The Cons of Network Attached Storage:

One of the main consolidation issues is the file systems under which NAS operates. End users, who are backing data up on the NAS, connect to it through their installed operating system. However, the actual file system on the NAS it typically Linux. In case of failure it may prove difficult to recover the data without professional data recovery service.

These are only two of the pros and cons of network attached storage that comes with the management of improved and advanced network technology. A business that uses NAS in their network design should ensure that the business is in need of a topology design that is as advanced as NAS. Even when NAS is not a solution that can be used in the business, the use of data recovery is important for any business to ensure its survival through disaster recovery.

Xbox 360 Green Screen – How to Fix Xbox 360 Green Screen of Death

Got the Xbox 360 green screen of death problem? Want this problem to be fixed? This problem can be pretty hard to fix, and exactly for that reason, many people will tell you to send your troubleshooting console over to Microsoft and pay $150. But is this really necessary? Can you actually fix your console…By yourself…?

Some Tips That May Fix Your Xbox 360 Green Screen Problem

1) Check for loose cables.

2) Try to unplug all cables except the power cord, and plug them back in.

3) Remove the hard-drive, then restart your console.

4) Once the Xbox 360 green screen problem is gone, get the hard-drive back in while your console has been shut down.

If these tips didn’t fix your console, then you have to consider to choose 1 of these 2 options.

Xbox 360 Green Screen Fix By Microsoft

What you can do is that you send your console over to Microsoft. That’s right, Microsoft has some kind of repair service to fix your Xbox 360 green screen error, but it’s obvious that it’s not for free. Microsoft is a big company, and a company like that needs…money…

So what did they come up with? You send your console over to them, wait 3-8 weeks, and on top of that… You will have to pay $150 if your warranty has been expired.

Xbox 360 Green Screen Fix By Yourself With A Repair Guide

Actually, this is your best option. It’s cheap and it’s fast and there’s only 1 downside attached to this. It takes 1 hour of your time… But hey, to earn back your $150 will probably take longer than 1 hour… right?

When you do an Xbox 360 green screen fix all by yourself, it’s highly recommended to use a repair guide. This costs some money, but it’s not expensive. What you will get back in return is a step by step manual that contains easy to understand instructions that’s coming along with detailed photo’s and step by step videos.

A digital marketing task by Kelvin Scotts, best marketing firms in singapore that provides full suite social media singapore services. More scope, click here.

Warnings Unheeded, Disasters Incurred – A Warning From Omni Magazine, Circa 1989

Omni is a defunct monthly magazine whose writing style and articles were a combination of scientific fact, technology and science fiction. It was in print from 1978 until 1995. An article from its January, 1989 issue was entitled, “Near Future Potential For Massive Terrorism on U.S. Soil” and was written by G. Gordon Liddy, a character infamous for his Watergate shenanigans. The article is written as a fictional memo to the President of the United States, summarizing the cause and impact of a multifaceted terror campaign on U.S. soil.

Given that the article was written about twelve years before the 9-11 attacks, it is interesting to see how Liddy saw the future unfolding. While he vastly overestimated the impact that the Soviet Union and South American influences would have in a terror filled future, he was pretty accurate in many respects:

– “As it is, we have had to ground the U.S. civil commercial aviation fleet for an indefinite time.” Just as Bin Laden saw it, the country’s aviation system could be used not only to kill Americans but also be used to disrupt the economy. Although it did not last as long as Liddy predicts, the entire U.S. aviation system was grounded for several days after the 9-11 attacks, inflicting further economic damage on the country beyond the actual attacks themselves.

– “Unfortunately, all major north-south railroad traffic in the United States funnels through two choke points: a single strategic railroad bridge over the Potomac River between Washington D.C. and Virginia and the rail complex at Cincinnati. On the night of August 2nd, terrorist-planted pressure mines took out the Potomac Bridge and the Cincinnati choke point was severed by the use of an expert combination of low order and high order explosives.” Given some of the early information being learned form the computers and data taken in the Bin Laden raid, it is clear the Bin Laden also had the same thoughts as Liddy as far as terror attacks on the nation’s rail systems.

– “While there are different estimates of the number of international terrorist groups, here we are including the PLO, the IRA, the Japanese Red Army, and French Action Directe, and Islamic Jihad.” Although 9-11 was still twelve years away, Liddy did correctly identify a type of Islamic jihad that carried out the attacks on 9-11.

– “The entire Louisiana attacking force (of terrorists) was recruited citizens of Communist African nations…and that groups of blacks could pass unnoticed in Louisiana. This led to the white commanding officers ignoring the input of competent black police in the South, who detected the presence of black aliens immediately and submitted their field intelligence reports on this matter…but when they reported them to their white superiors they were either ridiculed or ignored.”

Much like 9-11, in Liddy’s view, FBI field law enforcement officers correctly recognized various threats and reported their findings and theories which were ignored by their superiors. The Phoenix FBI office, among other offices, reported numerous accounts of suspicious activity by people that eventually ended up hijacking the planes on 9-11, accounts that were never acted on by their superiors.

– “The how is relatively simple. The terrorists were outfitted with appropriate clothing, alias documentation, and pocket money and infiltrated into the nation with the most porous border on earth.” Looks like our border security was just as bad back in 1989 as it is now.

– “Even without resorting to such high tech weapons, it is relatively straightforward to get a standard-construction gun through the airport magnetometers and roentgen machines, which are a joke.” Given that the 9-11 terrorists also used low tech weaponry (box cutters) and easily got them through airport security, it appears that Liddy foresaw this possibility also.

– “The people expect their government to do something about it: to fix the problem and punish those responsible. And the American people are not patient. Their faith in what the Founding Fathers wrought is ebbing fast.” Sounds like this applies today, not only to terror attacks but to the overall incompetency of government and the political class to fix any problem, not just terrorism. Another good prediction from Liddy.

– “Gradually, over the past few administrations, as Congress passed law after law for the people and the executive branch to follow but excepted Congress itself (the Civil Rights acts, the Fair Labor Standards Act, the minimum wage laws, etc.) and as Congress continued to act as if the rest of the laws of the land did not apply to them…” Sound familiar, 22 years after Liddy made his prediction?

Seems like Liddy got most of the general concepts right relative to terrorism and 9-11 even if he was a little off on some of the details. He also predicts terror attacks on the country’s electrical power grid and the country’s natural gas distribution network, all of which, when combined with a grounded aviation system and a crippled rail system, results in all types of other crises including food shortages and spoilage, sanitation problems, martial law, etc.

For the most part, the political class has not made any of these other catastrophes less likely since 1989, that our power grid, transportation networks, our gas and oil pipelines, etc are just as vulnerable today as when Liddy made these predictions.

A related side article by Peter Kornbluh also has some pretty accurate quotes and predictions:

  • The enemy no longer wears a uniform, drives a tank, or man’s a battleship.
  • He is a terrorist who takes hostages in the Middle East and plots attacks inside the United States.
  • The evolution from conventional to unconventional warfare does not mean that the world will be a safer place.
  • “We can expect that CIA covert paramilitary and political operations…will continue in every country where U.S. policy makers arrogantly believe they can shape events.
  • The proliferation of U.S. intervention in low-level conflicts around the globe will not advance U.S. national interests in peace and security.

Looks like both Liddy and Kornbluh got the future right. Too bad that the political class and the government it runs did not get it right and make the proper anti-terror defensive plans, based on their insights. Maybe if they had read the article, 3,000 Americans would not have died on 9-11. Maybe we would not find our selves having fought a useless war in Iraq and are probably fighting a losing war in Afghanistan.

But should we expect anything different from these career politicians? Michael Lewis, a typical Wall Street type, foresaw the coming Great Recession, driven by bad securities from the real estate industry, and made a lot of money off of his insights besides writing a successful book describing what he foresaw. However, no one in the political class or the agencies responsible for economic oversight (e.g. SEC, Treasury Department, Federal Reserve, Congressional committees) saw the coming economic collapse.

In 1999, Wall Street trader Harry Markopolos wrote to the SEC and stated: “Madoff Securities is the world’s largest Ponzi scheme.” However, the scheme went on for many more years and robbed many more Americans of their life savings before the political class and the government ever got around to doing what Markopolos did many years before.

The list goes on and on. There are many smart Americans in this country but it seems like their input never gets appreciated and used. Whether it is preventing terror attacks or financial crises, the political class always seems to be late, always coming up with an ineffective, expensive solution. Heck, Liddy gave them the terror blueprint for 9-11 twelve years before it happened and they still could not get it right. Lewis and Markopolos gave them the financial scandal and economic collapse blueprint years before they actually appreciated what they were being told. Liddy told them in 1989 that our borders were insecure and 22 years later they are still unsecure. The list goes on and on.

That is why we need to make substantial changes to our political processes so that we finally get people into office that can anticipate crises and problems and then have the problem solving skills to attack would-be problems before they become crises. Many steps are needed to improve and overhaul our political processes, whether it is campaign finance reform, term limits, Congressional committee accountability, primary election reforms, etc. The current way we do things politically in this country is not working. Even with ample warning, disasters still hit us constantly because of our politicians’ incompetency or complacency.

We need to get to a point where warnings are heeded and disasters are averted. Until then, we will continue to be amazed that 22 year old magazines are more accurate and timely than today’s politicians in Washington D.C.

A online marketing blog post by Kelvin Scotts, top digital marketing agency singapore that provides complete social media singapore services.

PS3 Faults – Solution To Find The Problem And Fix It Immediately

There are currently numerous PS3 faults that plague many PS3 consoles on today’s market. These things can be very frustrating in trying to find a solution that will remedy these systems of the issue they possess. As this consoles life-cycle moves forward there have been more and more cases that led to various reasons of why this console has fallen victim to various malfunctions. If you currently possess a PS3 system that has malfunctioned and are one of the many frustrated owners of a broken PS3 system you have now stumbled upon the resource that you have been in search for that is going to show you exactly why your system has received such errors and what your next step is in getting your broken PS3 system permanently fixed.

Before I begin to go into further detail about possible fixes for your system it is imperative that you first understand why your system has received the error that it currently has. Throughout various studies, it has been concluded that many of these issues come from internal components throughout the system that have become disruptive to the system, fortunately many of these problems can be fixed through very simple means by individuals with technically no experience. Throughout various cases it has been drawn that the majority of these issues come from the CPU, disk drive, hard drive, motherboard, or overheating issues.

Starting from the last point that was illustrated in the previous section, one thing that many console owners has misinterpreted as an internal error has been a result of the system overheating. This is why it is very important that you first observe your consoles surrounding. You should immediately test to see if your system is in a space in which it can pull in cool air and push out warm air effectively. If it is in an area in which it is forced to pull in more hot air it will force the system to overheat which can cause various issues. Many console issues can be solved by simply placing the system and an area where it can obtain better airflow.

Now that you understand the various causes of these PS3 faults you now have two major options to choose from to get your system repaired. The two options that you have are to either simply repair the system yourself or pay a repair service to repair the system for you.

Throughout my experience, it has shown that self-repairs provide an exponentially greater advantage over using another repair service. These advantages come from the perspectives of price, return time, how long the repairs last, the ability to keep your saved data, and a variety of other things.

A social media marketing article by Kelvin Scotts, top marketing agencies in singapore that provides full suite social media marketing services. More information, check here.

Entourage Repair to Fix "Not Enough Memory" in Microsoft Entourage

Are you unable to access your Entourage Inbox, Drafts folder, Deleted Items folder, and any of your subfolders of Inbox? You get memory errors while accessing items from your database. This behavior makes all your precious data inaccessible and leads to severe data loss. At this point of time, you need to opt for Entourage repair solutions to get your precious data back.

In a practical instance of this problem with your E-mail client, you may encounter the below error message while accessing data-

“Entourage cannot open the item due to an error. Not enough memory.”

This behavior renders all your precious data inaccessible. In order to recover Entourage database in such cases, you need to find out the cause of this issue and fix it using appropriate solutions.

Root of the problem-

Unfortunately, the above error is not caused by memory problems. This is actually a wrong description on generic error, which can be caused by number of other things, such as-

  • If you get this error while receiving emails, it can be due to a corrupt message.
  • The fonts are faulty or damaged.
  • Your Mac RAM (Read Only Memory) is either low or damaged.
  • Entourage database is either corrupt or unrecognizable.


  • Log into your account using web browser and remove the damaged items.
  • Install new fonts or remove the faulty fonts.
  • Replace or Upgrade your Macintosh RAM.
  • Restore your database from the most recent backup. You are recommended to repair Entourage database from backup only if it is updated.

If you cannot perform Entourage database recovery using any of the above methods, you need to opt for Entourage recovery software to get your data back. Entourage repair software are capable of retrieving inaccessible data in all data loss situations.

Your Guide to an Efficient Filing System

Your Guide to Filing

An efficient filing system has become critical, but still, more often than not, filing systems are acquired without consideration to WHAT is being stored, WHY it’s being stored, WHERE and HOW it’s being stored. You need to ensure resources are not wasted by replacing your filing system just for replacement sake; it may well be that your current filing system will meet your required criteria by adopting different soft folder and indexing formats.

Many filing organisations will recommend replacing your current system with space efficient filing systems without consideration to the filing process.

Filing Facts

The freedom of Information Act and the Data Protection Act has made a huge impact on the way records are stored.

Certain types of records have to be stored by law for certain periods of time.

The amount of paper and records stored by organisations is increasing every year.

Misplaced or lost records cost many organisations a substantial amount of money through lost time looking for them. Some types of records will also incur an organisation a heavy fine if the record can not be produced on demand.

Clear indexing and identifiable records will speed up the retrieval process for when the file is needed – not when it is too late.

An inefficient filing system will take up more floor space costing the organisation more money through floor space rates.

An efficient filing system will save time, space and money making your organisation run much more effectively, leading to greater success.

Filing Audit

If you want to improve your filing efficiency you need to know the strengths and weaknesses of your current filing system. The questions below are a good list of questions that once answered will outline specific areas that need attention.

The Records

o How are your records stored? (Lever Arch, Foolscap file)

o What is the volume of records in linear meters

o Are there any duplicates or copies? If so what for?


o How effective is your indexing?

o What do you like or dislike about your indexing?

o Is misfiling a common occurrence?

File Storage

o How effective is the storage system?

o What do you like or dislike about it?

o What are the present floor space costs?

Record Access

o How frequently are records retrieved from the system?

o How many people use the filing system?

o Do the records need to be secure?

o Are records returned accurately and on time?

Record Tracking

o Are the records needed for filing Audits?

o How do you keep track of your records?

o Does your tracking system work?

Evaluating your system

The answers to the above should enable you to evaluate:

o Records which are not needed could be archived or destroyed

o Records needing consolidation

o Any indexing improvements

o Effectiveness of the system

Creating an efficient filing system

o Avoid complicated indexing methods

o Avoid handwritten indexes

o Before opening a new record make sure its unique.

o When indexing a record think of the first identifying reference that comes to mind

o Be specific with titles, never use general or miscellaneous.

o Allocate a unique reference ID.

o All correspondence in the file should be dated or marked for reference

o Separate archive from live records

Further details on file creation refer to RMS 1.1 Standard written by the National Archives.

Tracking Records

What happens to your records when they are away from the system?

Case studies show that traditional tracking methods have become inefficient and unreliable An electronic system using a bar codes or RFID tags will improve file tracking.

Locating and Controlling Records must be efficient. Record users should be able to file and retrieve records quickly and efficiently.

Tracking records in a filing system should:

o Assist with accurate retrieval of records

o Ensure access of records to staff authorised to do so

o Assist with record retention periods

o Record a complete history of a record’s movement

If a record is removed from the system, the following information should be documented:

o The record’s index details

o Who retrieved the record

o The date the record was retrieved

o A proposed return date and the actual return date

Conventional Filing Methods Vs End Tab Colour Coded Filing Methods

It has been established by the industry that traditional suspended pocket filing is the most inefficient way of storing documentation. The suspended file pocket, by design, is estimated to waste between 15-20% of valuable storage space within the system. Furthermore, suspended file pockets have a tendency to split and as a result cause misfiling/lost files.

File Indexes in a hand-written or text-printed format can be difficult to read enhancing the opportunity for slow retrieval and misfiling.

Using standard folders, filing/retrieval times are slow and misfiling is a common occurrence purely because another folder hides a records index.

Portrait Lever Arch Files are designed with a fixed centre of between 73-78mm, invariably the folder houses less capacity than the file offers wasting valuable shelf storage space, in addition because of its design, fewer storage levels can be achieved in a standard storage system.

By simply employing a colour coded index system these inherent problems can be overcome.


Disposing of records is an important part of maintaining control of your records. Before a disposal schedule is put into place you must understand all of your legal and regulatory business requirements.

Legal and regulatory requirements including the Freedom of Information Act 2000, the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Public Records Act 1958 all effect the disposal of records. All have imposed new and more stringent duties on public sector bodies with regards to records disposal.

So what does this mean?

Disposal doesn’t mean destruction. It means any action taken to determine the fate of the record including transfer to an archive system. When it is not possible at any time to determine the disposal of the records they may be scheduled for review at a later date.

Retention usually means the length of time records are kept, sometimes known as disposal schedules. If a disposal schedule is not put into place, the tendency is to store records indefinitely taking up unnecessary space.

Confidential information must be stored securely and disposed of by way of shredding.

For further details on disposal scheduling please refer to Disposal Scheduling (RMS 5.1) Standard written by the National Archives.

Data Mining and Its Impact on Business

Today, businesses are collecting more information that is available in a variety of formats. This includes: operational data, sales reports, customer data, inventory lists, forecast data, etc. In order to effectively manage and grow the business, all of the data gathered requires effective management and analysis. One such way of controlling the vast amount of information flow is a process called Data Mining.

Data mining is the process of taking a large amount of data and analyzing it from a variety of angles and putting into a format that makes it useful information to help a business improve operations, reduce costs, boost revenue, and make better business decisions. Today, effective data mining software has developed to help a business to collect and analyze useful information.

This process allows a business to collect data from a variety of sources, analyze the data using software, load the information into a database, store the information, and provide analyzed data in a useful format such as a report, table, or graph. As it relates to business analysis and business forecasting, the information analyzed is classified to determine important patterns and relationships. The idea is to identify relationships, patterns, and correlations from a broad number of different angles from a large database. These kinds of software and techniques allow a business easy access to a much simpler process which makes it more lucrative.

Data mining works allows a company to use the information to maintain competitiveness in a highly competitive business world. For instance, a company may be collecting a large volume of information from various regions of the country such as a consumer national survey. The software can compile the mined data, categorize it, and analyze it, to reveal a host of useful information that a marketer can use for marketing strategies. The outcome of the process should be an effective business analysis that allows a company to fully understand the information in order to make accurate business decisions that contributes to the success of the business. An example of a very effective use of data mining is acquiring a large amount of grocery store scanner data and analyzing it for market research. Data mining software allows for statistical analysis, data processing, and categorization, which all helps achieve accurate results.

It is mostly used by businesses with a strong emphasis on consumer information such shopping habits, financial analysis, marketing assessments…etc. It allows a business to determine key factors such as demographics, product positioning, competition, pricing, customer satisfaction, sales, and business expenditures. The result is the business is able to streamline its operations, develop effective marketing plans, and generate more sales. The overall impact is an increase in revenue and increased profitability.

For retailers, this process allows them to use of sales transactions to develop targeted marketing campaigns based on their customers shopping habits. Today, mining applications and software are available on all system sizes and platforms. For instance, the more information that has to be gathered and processed, the bigger the database. As well, the type of software a business will use depends on how complicated the data mining project. The more multifaceted the queries and the more queries performed, the more powerful system will be needed.

When a business harnesses the power of this system, they are able to gain important knowledge that will help them not only develop effective marketing strategies leading to better business decisions, but it will help identify future trends in their particular industry. Data mining has become an essential tool to help businesses gain a competitive edge.