How to Retrieve Deleted Text Messages From a Samsung CDMA Cellular Device

Have you noticed some changes in your relationship or marriage that make you feel uneasy? You may have even caught your husband deleting text messages from his cell phone when he realized you seen him texting. These are just a very few of the many signs that usually occur when an innocent individual is involved with a cheating spouse of partner. Unfortunately, far too many people eventually just resolve to the fact that they will never be able to catch their cheating partners that are engaging in infidelity. The good news is there is another option available, when you rely on an expert to retrieve deleted text messages from your partners Samsung CDMA cellular device.

Consulting with a professional in cell phone forensic investigations is a service that can provide you with a variety of helpful information when you would like to confront a spouse that is having an affair. They have the ability to retrieve deleted text messages and other information such as the data that is listed below:

– File system

– NV memory dump

– EEPROM/ROM/Flash memory dump

– Device properties

– Calendar

– History of erased calls that were made and received

– Detailed phone book information

– NAND memory dump

– SMS text history

– Other erased data

Before you think about trying SIM card readers that you can purchase over-the-counter, it would be advisable to speak with a professional first. These readers are well known for the damage that they can cause to the data that is on cellular devices. To make matters worse, you will generally never be able to retrieve deleted text or data after it has become damaged. It is much better to let an expert perform a cell phone forensic investigation. They have the specialized equipment and the knowledge to perform investigations on Samsung CDMA cellular devices in as little as 48 hours.

There are many different reasons why there are more individuals than ever before that are depending on investigators that know how to retrieve deleted text messages and other forms of important data, and a few of the most common reasons would include the following:

– Employers trying to catch employees who have engaged in theft

– Innocent individuals that are faced with the need to catch cheating partners

– Parents that suspect their teenager is partaking in various actions that include the use of illegal drug substances, bullying teenagers or other children, and sending or receiving sext messages (sexting)

Copyright (c) 2010 Ed Opperman

Disaster Recovery Invocation Procedures

The following procedure illustrates at high level the first 24 hours following disaster invocation. This procedure is based on a “warm” recovery service.

Following a disaster, clearly defined steps/actions need to be taken to enable business continuity. During the first 24 hours these steps will fall into the following categories.

Initial Assessment

Timescales – Immediately (T + 0)

Following a disaster situation the first step that must be taken is to assess the current situation. This will be carried out by the Disaster Co-ordinator, who will decide if the Disaster Management Team needs to be assembled. The team will need access to a Disaster Command Facility, if the primary location is not accessible for any reason. The Disaster Management Team and Command Centre should be detailed, along with relevant phone/mobile numbers and directions in the Business Continuity Plan.

The relevant emergency services should have already been notified of the situation. The Disaster Management Team would act as the main focal point for the emergency services.

It may be necessary to make a pre-invocation call to put the Disaster Recovery service on standby, thereby reducing the response time should the service be formally invoked.

Disaster Management Meeting

Timescales – within 1 hour (T + 1 hour)

If it is necessary to call a formal Disaster meeting, this should happen within 1 hour of the event. It may not be possible to get all members of the team together in these timescales, therefore all essential members should be agreed upon and documented in the plan.

The Disaster Management Team’s main role would be to:

­ Define the problem

­ Define the extent of the disruption

­ Determine the likely impact on your business

­ Estimate outage length (where possible)

­ Invoke Disaster Recovery service if applicable

­ Formally set up Disaster Command centre

­ Agree team’s objectives for next three hours

­ Agree formal verbal report for senior management

­ Agree on staffing levels needed at the present time

­ Send non-essential staff home (if during office hours)

­ Contact non-essential staff at home (if out of hours)

­ Call in additional staff (if out of hours)

­ Set up next meeting for T + 4 hours

Disaster Review Meeting

Timescales – within 2 hours (T + 2 hours)

At this stage you should have a much more detailed understanding of the situation. This will enable a full written report to be produced for senior management.

The Disaster Management Team will have by this time:

­ Invoked the disaster Recover Service (if applicable)

­ Set up a temporary Disaster Command centre

­ Mobilise essential staff members

If applicable the warm standby (Disaster Recovery) services should be available by this time to start configuration of the standby systems.

Configuration of Standby Equipment

Timescales – within 2 hours of invocation (T + 4 hours)

Warm Disaster Recovery configurations are normally scheduled to be available within 2 hours of invocation. By this time the site should be ready to receive the equipment. Power and Communications should be enabled and facilities for the essential staff should be available. Additional equipment needing to be purchased may arrive some time after this. The backup media will also have arrived onsite.

Restoration of Data and Testing

Timescales – within 20 hours of invocation (T + 22 hours)

Up to 8 hours may be required to restore and test the system. Comprehensive user acceptance test (UAT) procedures should be documented in your Disaster Recovery Plan to ensure the systems are fully operational before they are announced to be live to the end user.

Systems available to end users

Timescales – within 22 hours of invocation (T + 24 hours)

At this stage you should be able to resume some (or all) of your business activities (depending on the scope of the disaster). It is critical at this stage to plan for full business restoral. These steps should include:

­ Interim requirement such as larger temporary accommodation

­ Refurbishment of damaged offices (if applicable)

­ Identification of new premises (if applicable)

­ Replacement of damaged equipment

A full Business Resumption plan should also be produced, detailing the transition from the standby facility to permanent offices.

Visit EMAContinuity @ http://emacontinuity.com

Categorizing UPS Loads and Load Types

Hardly anyone will argue that the need for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) is on the rise as ancient power supply infrastructures creek under the weight of increasing demand for energy worldwide. But why do power protection load types need to be categorised?

Firstly, business managers must assess what UPS loads are in terms of their criticality to the continuity of operations in the event of a power cut. Usually, uninterruptible power supply loads are categorised as critical, essential and non-essential.

Another crucial assessment at the design stage of a UPS system is how these loads are synergised, i.e., which loads affect other loads?

Computer loads, in terms of a retail business for example, may affect other systems that are part of facilities management. This may include security cameras, door entry systems, lifts, escalators, PoS terminals, kiosks, cash machines and so forth. In a warehousing business, computer loads may also have a significant bearing on the ability of the business to handle both in-bound and out-bound goods. All of this needs to be taken into account when assessing the criticality of UPS loads.

UPS loads also need to be categorised in terms of their electrical draw and the effect it has on electrical systems; whether they are capacitive, inductive or resistive. This will have a bearing on the size and type of UPS system to be installed.

Load Categories. Critical loads directly affect the ability of an organisation to operate and must either be kept running when the mains power supply fails or be powered down in an orderly manner to prevent systems crashes, data loss or corruption, and life-shortening hardware damage. Their routine operation can also be interrupted when the mains power supply is polluted.

Essential loads provide secondary support services and may be required for health and safety reasons or to maintain ambient temperature. Whilst requiring a form of back-up in case of mains power supply failure, they do not require uninterruptible power and can be allowed to fail or ride through the time it takes for a generator (or alterative back-up system) to start up. Examples include air-conditioning, heating and emergency lighting.

Non-essential loads are those that an organisation can afford to lose when the mains power supply fails. For example, general lighting and non-essential printing services.

Some critical loads, especially sensitive medical and scientific equipment, require tight voltage and frequency regulation and this is only possible from the continuously running inverter of an on-line UPS. Essential loads do not need the quality of supply provided by a UPS and can be powered directly from a generator. This will allow the overall size of UPS to be reduced. Non-essential loads do not require any power protection at all.

The Effect on the Electrical System of Critical UPS Loads. In terms of type, UPS loads are referred to as either linear or non-linear, depending on how they draw their current from the mains power supply waveform. They will be inductive, capacitive or resistive.

An inductive load is one the waveform of which lags the voltage waveform and has a potentially high in-rush current at start-up. Examples of this type of load are SMPS (the most common form of power supply unit in use today and the type of computer loads most often found behind today’s power-hungry data centres), transformer or motor. This may be tempered by a soft-start facility.

Capacitive loads are those that lead the voltage waveform with potentially high in-rush current at start-up. An example of this is the latest high-end server technology such as Blade of Edge Servers.

A resistive load is one that has no inductance or capacitance, an example being a resistive load test bank heater element where the device typically has no initial switch-on surge and the current drawn rises immediately to a steady running state.

Whether a load is inductive, capacitive or resistive will determine its power factor and this in itself greatly influences the overall size of the UPS and generator (or alternative source of back-up power) to be installed. By convention, an inductive load is defined as a positive reactive power and a capacitive load is defined as a negative reactive power. However, power factor is never shown as positive or negative; rather it is displayed as either lagging or leading.

Assessing load types, how they are synergised, and their effect on electrical current is critical to correctly sizing and designing UPS solutions to get maximum power protection and value for money. Expertise from specialists like Riello UPS, whose business is to fully comprehend UPS loads and load types, cannot be overlooked. More detail can be found in a fantastic book on UPS – The Power Protection Guide.

Data Processing Steps – How to Process Data Efficiently?

Data processing in simplest way, we can draw like this; DATA –> Processing on Data –> Converted to Information.

As we have seen above, data processing means a process of converting data into information. This processing is done through computers which accept raw data as input and provide information as output.

Data processing is very much helpful to most of the financial institutions, universities, publishing companies, different hospitals, oil and transportation organizations and pharmaceutical organizations. There are various kinds of data processing services are available in the market. Check processing, image processing, form processing, survey processing are some of them.

Data Processing Steps:

Collecting – First step is to collect the raw data which you want to process. From which data do you want information? This is first question before you start.

Sorting – Relevance of data is very important while processing the data. There are various irrelevant data which decrease the perfection of the information. So from the bunch of collected data, sorting is needed to get relevant output information. Data must be in proper categorization.

Bucketing – It is similar to ‘netting’ or ‘coding’. This step involves aligning the random data in particular structure. When data collected and sorted, it was not aligned properly. Random data can create problem while processing the data. Bucketing helps you to have the process smoothly.

Entering Data – If system is not having any data, what it process!! To process data, there must be data for the software. Entering organized data in to the software is required to get processed information at the end of whole process.

Cleansing – This step increase the quality of the processed data. In this step, quality controller validates the data. Data is double-checked to secure the faultless data processing. This cleansing helps you to process the data very efficiently and quickly.

Proper Formatting – Last but most important step to end the process very effectively is proper formatting. Without proper formatting, there is no meaning of data processing. Proper formatting is very much helpful to understand the data very easily and conclude the decision quickly.

Most of the well-known companies are following above mention steps to satisfy the clients’ needs.

4 Types of Uninterruptible Power Supply Solutions

When utility power suffers an outage, an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can provide a continuous electrical current. These units are typically used as a secondary power source for emergencies. Depending upon the type of business and its needs, different types of UPS’s may be more appropriate than others. Below, we’ll describe the 4 main types of UPS’s that are currently available and deployed in various industries throughout the world.

#1 – Offline UPS

Also called a “standby UPS,” this unit doesn’t act until a disruption in the electrical current is identified. After this happens, the battery within the UPS begins supplying the current in the utility’s absence. When the UPS closes the transfer switch and begins to supply power, there’s a brief period during which power is unavailable. While offline UPS’s are inexpensive compared to other UPS solutions, some types of sensitive equipment can’t work properly with this inherent limitation.

#2 – Online UPS

An online UPS maintains a constant connection from the UPS battery to the equipment that needs power. Electricity is converted from AC to DC and then converted back to AC before delivery. The continuous link between the online UPS’s battery and the equipment not only prevents any brief loss of power (like that experienced with offline UPS’s), but helps manage voltage irregularities. While this type of UPS usually costs more and is less energy-efficient, its reliability is an important factor for many mission critical applications.

#3 – Ferro-Resonant UPS

This type of UPS is very similar to an offline UPS. It works in the same manner. The most significant difference is the use of an internal transformer within the ferro-resonant UPS. The main limitation of an offline UPS is the brief power loss between the time the transfer switch is closed and the battery begins supplying power. The ferro-resonant UPS’s transformer is designed to resolve that issue. Ideally, the transformer holds enough energy to cover the momentary power loss. Because equipment that’s used for power factor corrections reacts poorly to the transformers, this type of UPS is seldom used today.

#4 – Line Interactive UPS

Line interactive UPS’s attempt to correct some of the problems of an offline UPS. Like an online UPS, this unit maintains a continuous connection between the battery and the output. However, the primary source of the electrical current is still the AC input. In the event the primary source becomes unavailable, the transfer switch is opened, allowing an inverter and converter to charge the battery before delivering the current. While they’re more expensive than an offline UPS, they still have difficulty regulating voltage sags and surges.

Choosing A UPS Solution

The primary constraint for most small businesses is budgetary. While an online UPS provides consistency and reliability, they’re expensive. However, while an offline UPS is less-expensive, the unit can expose your sensitive digital equipment to unpredictable power outages and surges. Weigh your options and your power needs. Then, try to invest as much as you can afford in a robust UPS solution. While the initial investment can seem prohibitively high, it’s an insurance policy worth having.

The Acer D2D Erecovery 101

Disclaimer: First of all backup your system before launching you in any hazardous operation, some of the operations to come can cause data loss. Any modification and/or damage done on your laptop will be under your responsibility.

As you know now the Acer laptops and those of other manufacturers are now delivered with a restoration system installed in a hidden partition (PQservice for Acer)on your hard disk. Normally this system launches out while pressing simultaneously keys ALT+F10, but sometimes that does not function.

What’s the problem?

There are many possible causes, but most common are:

A The function D2D was disabled in the bios.

Solution: Enable the function by pressing F2 during the boot to access the bios menu and change the setting, then reboot and press keys ALT+F10 during the starting of the laptop.

Note: For all the following solutions take into account the Max advice, I quote Max now, a contributor in my site «But I want to mention the way I sorted out the thing, because it’s very rarely mentioned on the web. All the methods to repair the D2D Alt+f10 issue are knowledgeable and smart but all of them forget to say a fundamental thing:

first of all you have to rebuild with a partition soft the D:Acerdata FAT32 empty partition that almost everybody deletes cause is usually empty. Simply doing it, everything turned fine and the recovery worked perfectly.»

Yes much of attempts to restore fail because of this condition.

B An other common problem the Acer Master Boot Record (MBR)is damaged, or replaced by the MBR of another system. You can reinstall the Acer MBR if the partition PQservice is present or if you can have access to the necessary files.

Solutions:

FIRST

On a functional FAT32 Windows system the partition table values are OC or OB for installable FAT32 system files and 12 or 1B for Hidden FAT32 partition, for a NTFS system the known partition table values are O7 for installable NTFS files system and 27 for Acer custom hidden NTFS partition:

1. Go in the bios and disable the D2D recovery option.

2. Download partedit32.

3. Identify the PQservice partition by its size (there is an information box at the bottom of the partedit window) it is the small sized partition approximately 4 to 9 Go.Once made change the type of your partition into 0C(FAT32) or 07(NTFS) and save. Reboot and now you should be able to navigate inside the PQservice partition.

Search for these two files:

mbrwrdos.exe

rtmbr.bin

(The name of these two files can be different sometimes)

When localized open a command prompt windows as an administrator and enter this command “mbrwrdos.exe install rtmbr.bin”, to install the Acer MBR. Close the command prompt, reboot again your laptop, reactivate the D2D recovery in the bios. Now ALT+F10 should work and run the Acer Erecovery when the laptop start.

SECOND

Somebody who tried to follow the first method but did not succeed to find the 2 files found another solution to restore the partition.

Use partedit32 to locate the partition pqservice(on aspire 5920g,its the larger 9 gb partition)

Change the partition type to 07(Installable NTFS),reboot.

After reboot,go to the windows computer management and mark the PQservice partition as active then reboot again.

Voila!! You can now proceed to the road to recovery

THIRD

On a nonfunctional Windows system.

Download the Ultimate Boot CD(UBCD) run it choose in the menu:

-Filesystem Tools

-Boot Managers

-For me GAG functioned well, but you can choose any of the other boot loader, you will recognize the PQservice by it type(hidden).

Just install any boot loader and use it to boot into the PQservice to start the Erecovery restoring process.

C The last problem: You replaced your hard disc( in this case PQservice is not present any more) or your partition was erased or damaged.

Solution: I hope that you burned the Acer restoration CD/DVD when it had been asked to you at the time of the first use, cause if you did not previously make a backup of your laptop by making a disc image, it will not be possible to use the Acer Erecovery.

Let us give the last words to Max:

«Problem Sorted Alan. And you’re right that an external drive for data backup it’s all important. Yes I have it and backed-up my data before starting messing up… »

Keeping Your Server Room Clean

Regular cleaning of your computer room is an incredibly important part of maintaining your data center environment. You should regularly schedule site cleanings in order to keep your environment free of dust, dirt and other harmful particles that can damage your operating systems and create health risks for personnel. Dust and other particles that circulate within your server room can accumulate and greatly interfere with the equipment by causing a variety of difficult-to-deal-with or even tragic problems. Such problems could include media errors and data loss.

A good rule that should always be followed is to schedule a certified data center cleaning on a quarterly basis. You may need to schedule a cleaning even more often, if your particulate count exceeds the standards set by ISO 14644-8 or ISO 14644-9. By following this quarterly (or more often) cleaning schedule, you will be able to optimize the performance of your server room equipment, while cutting down on the cost of repairs or data recovery. If you think about it and compare the cost of a regular cleaning to the overall financial investment that was put into your data center, it’s definitely a smart buy.

How Should You Choose a Cleaning Service?

Don’t get up to grab a broom and dustpan quite yet. While this is what you’d do at home, data centers are very different from your home environment. Yes, you should clean both your house and your server room on a regular basis, but that’s about the only thing they have in common. Cleaning an entire data center is a very delicate process that requires the services and expertise of professionals who are highly-trained at what they do and who know to go about safely cleaning your critical equipment.

Here are some tips to help you choose the right cleaning service:

* Make sure you check company’s references, and specifically ask about the quality of their service. You should specifically find a references or two that has facilities like yours. Make sure the company you might select knows how to deal with the type of equipment in your computer room.

* The company should be insured for damages they might cause during the cleaning process. If there’s an accident during the cleaning, you want to make sure you’ll be protected.

* Evaluate the experience and training of the cleaning crew and ask to see their credentials. There are certain standards that they should be trained and certified in.

* Review their cleaning methods. You need to make sure they use HEPA filtration vacuums and all their chemicals should be safe for use with electronics systems and other hardware.

* Tell them up front what your expectations are and establish parameters for cleaning. Who will move the equipment? Does the service including cleaning in the sub-floor or above the server racks? Perhaps there are certain data-sensitive areas of your server room. Will those areas be off-limits? What else is included or not included in their cleaning service?

* You’ll want to look for a company who will be available to clean according to your needs. Perhaps in addition to your regular cleanings, will they be available in the event of a last-minute emergency?

Dealing With the 5 Stages of Data Loss Grief

To most people, the loss of important files, documents, music collection, photos, and whatever stuff is built up over time in one’s PC is a great challenge to overcome. In fact, according to an article in a popular tech magazine, a person who has just experienced data loss goes through five stages of grief.

If you haven’t tried losing computer data and files, count yourself as one of the lucky ones. But if you’ve ever mourned such loss, let’s see if you can identify with each of these 5 stages:

Denial. A computer user’s usual first reaction to a computer malfunction is to deny the gravity of the situation and rationalize. You would always think that whatever the issue is, this can be resolved with a few tweaks or a reboot. Not until later would you realize that you may have seen the last of your files.

Anger. When realization about the loss finally dawns (perhaps after having restarted the PC for the nth time to no avail), anger sets in. The anger could be directed at the computer company, the hard disk manufacturer, the anti-virus software, even the power provider. But most of the anger could be directed at oneself for not having put preventive measures in place like online backup solutions.

Bargaining. When the anger subsides, the data loss victim will then likely think of the most feasible data recovery options available. Will a replacement hard disk do? Is it even possible to transfer the data at all? If not, how much would it cost if a recovery expert were to do the retrieval? If you’re hoping that data recovery won’t cost as much these days, you’re in for a huge disappointment.

Depression. Losing files must feel really bad and with recovery prospects looking dim, the victim understandably goes through a period of depression. If data loss is worth crying over, then it is in this stage that you shed your tears or wallow in the throes of despair.

Acceptance. But when you’re done being depressed, you’ll soon come to terms with the fact that it’s time to pick up the pieces and do whatever you can to reconstruct or retrieve the lost data. While this was a definitely stressful period in your life, it’s also one that’s best put behind you.

If you ask me, having to go through all those stages of data loss grief is a waste of time and tears. To ensure that you won’t have to experience such loss, use an online backup service for all your important files, photos, music, and other data. They are secure, hassle-free, and affordable solutions to achieving peace of mind.

What Is the Difference Between Hot, Warm and Cold Disaster Recovery?

When it comes to implementing your business continuity plan what strategy do you adopt for the disaster recovery element? (for a description on the difference between Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity please see my article on Disaster Recovery or Business Continuity?).

You may have heard the terms hot, cold and warm recovery, but what do they mean, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of each service?

Hot Standby

Hot standby is normally available to the users within minutes of a disaster situation. This level of service is achieved by total duplication of the computer systems covered (hardware, software and data). There will also be a requirement for a resilient network connection into the Hot Site.

Benefits – Available immediately; dedicated to (customer).

Disadvantages – Cost; Complexity, management.

Warm Standby

Warm standby is normally available to the users within hours of a disaster situation. This is by far the most common type of service utilised by for I.T. disaster recovery, and typical recovery times range from 8 hours to 24 hours (dependent on complexity, location and data volumes).

The service can be delivered from a remote recovery centre, or alternatively, delivered to site in the event of a disaster. Depending on the equipment involved the configuration may be installed within an existing facility or a mobile recovery unit.

It should be noted that whilst the Hot standby option is normally dedicated to one customer, Warm standby is delivered on a subscription basis. Industry standards are between ten and twenty five subscribers per configuration. Availability is therefore not guaranteed in the event of a disaster. Testing is also normally to a predefined number of days P.A.

Benefits – Lower cost; reasonable availability.

Disadvantages – Availability; recovery timescales are longer; limited testing available; only available for a limited period following a disaster.

Cold Standby

Cold standby is the provision of computer and people facilities that are made available to the client within a few hours of the incident. Unless the service is backed up by a contract to supply the necessary computer equipment, the recovery period is likely to be several days. It is not unusual for Warm and Cold standby services to be combined, giving a very flexible approach to recovery.

Fully serviced office space is also available on a subscription basis. These are usually equipped with PCs, servers, printing facility and a network infrastructure. These would be described as Business Recovery Centres, and could also incorporate Cold space for central systems.

Benefits – Lower cost; large amount of available space (can accommodate large systems). Business recovery Centres can accommodate several hundred people.

Disadvantages – Availability; recovery timescales are longer; limited testing available; only available for a limited period following a disaster; additional recovery services needed.

EMA Continuity

Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity

Disaster recovery planning and preventive measures ensure business continuity. The main question is “What if an attacker succeeds and renders an organization’s functions impossible?” Whether the break in business continuity is a short or long one, this is where an organization’s disaster recovery plans comes into play. The disaster recovery plans define the resources, actions, and data required to reinstate critical business processes that have been damaged or disabled because of a disaster. By focusing on disaster recovery plans and preventions, network managers can minimize the impact that catastrophic events may have in their environment. The recovery plan is the best way to insure that a business survives an IT emergency.

The various potential disasters that security administrators need to be concerned about can be classified as human induced incidents, natural, internal, armed conflict, and external. Human induced incidents can include loss of power, transportation accidents, and chemical contaminations. Natural incidents can include flood, earthquake, and tornado. Internal incidents include sabotage, theft, and employee violence. Armed conflict can include acts of terrorism, like the 911 attacks, civil unrest, and war. External incidents include hacking, unauthorized use, and industrial espionage.

Organizations identify potential threats and analyze what needs to be achieved in order to continue operating as though nothing had happened. After identifying these potential threats, security administrators can be in a better position to protect the mission-critical information systems.

Data backup is an essential part of any disaster recovery plan. Data backup allows personnel to restore files and application software that is vital to continue business. An effective data backup strategy should address how often backups are run, type of backup medium, when the backups are run, are backups automated or manual, backup verification, storage, who is responsible for the backups, and the fallback person responsible for backups. Addressing the need for off-site storage may also be an important guideline for organizations with extensive business-critical data (Boswell…, 2003 p. 433).

Organizations must include thorough planning and testing and include provisions for business continuity. Anticipating disasters is the first in the process. There is a lot to be learned and corrected from the testing phase and it needs to be taken very seriously. The testing exercise helps minimize losses during an actual attack. An effective disaster recovery plan should include the following documents: a list of covered disasters, a list of the disaster recovery team members, a business impact assessment, a business resumption and continuity plan, backup documentation, and restoration documentation.

It has been said that the most important step in managing potential disasters is to have in place a well-trained and ready to respond team including a member from senior management, members of the IT department, representatives from facilities management, and representatives from the user community affected by the crisis. In a real crisis, the disaster recovery team meets to evaluate and determine the sources of the disaster and identify the critical components that are affected. The team than assesses the business impact of the disaster, estimating how long the disaster may disrupt business continuity. In this process the cost of the disaster is also ascertained. Exhaustively documenting changes that are implemented during the rush to solve the problem is also crucial.

It is also important that organizations show their commitment to these plans that come from the IS department by adopting well-defined security policies and human resource policies that reflects their support to information security. A useful and well-written security policy should include sections on acceptable use, privacy, due care, separation of duties, “need-to-know” issues, password management, service-level agreements, and the destruction or disposal of information and storage media (Boswell…, 2003 p. 437). Human resources policy deals with personnel management. There should be thorough hiring practices including background, reference, and educational checks. To minimize a security risk, employees should have periodic reviews and rotate job functions and duties, which is beneficial in an emergency due to the more even distribution of information. Employee termination practices are also important in the protection and prevention of threats. Exit interviews should be conducted, individuals should be escorted off the property, and the terminated employee’s computer accounts and passwords should be deactivated and changed. A code of ethics should also be included in an organization’s human resources policy. This would help define and clarify the company’s stance on information security and provide a foundation built on ethics (Boswell…, 2003 p. 441).

An incident response policy can also play a critical role. This policy covers how to deal with a security incident after it has occurred. Following a sound incident response methodology lessens the likelihood that incompetent and inefficient actions will occur and contributes to the practice of due care. An incident response policy should follow the steps of preparation (being ready before an incident occurs), detection (recognizing the presents of malicious code or whether files have been altered), containment (preventing further loss or disruption of services), eradication (removing viruses or malicious code along with cleaning and reformatting hard drives that were affected), recovery (restoring the system), and follow up (develop set of lessons learned) (Boswell…, 2003 p. 442).

In conclusion, in is important to combine a disaster recovery plan with a well-defined and documented security policy, human resources policy, and incident response policy, which can minimize the effects of a catastrophic event and help assure business continuity. It is said, “Failure to prepare is preparing to fail.”

Works Cited

Boswell, S., Calvert, B., Campbell, P. (2003). Security + Guide to Network Security

Fundamentals. Boston, Massachusetts: Thomson Course Technology.