The Major Components That Make Up a Computer

In this article I give a high level overview of all the major components of a computer – the computer hardware. This information is useful for anyone who wants to be able to repair or upgrade their computer, or just wants to have a basic understanding of how a computer works.

Case

The computer is housed inside of what’s called the computer case. The computer case is the metallic box that surrounds the computer. It’s there to protect the computer and to hold the components in place.

Power Supply

The power supply is the box with lots of wires coming out of it. It takes the electricity that comes out of the wall outlet and converts it into electricity that each of the internal components can use.

Motherboard

The motherboard is a big circuit board that connects all the internal components together. It gives the internal components a way to communicate with each other. It also provides some common functionality that is basic to all computers – audio, network, modem, sometimes video, and a few other things. These additional devices that come as part of the motherboard are called integrated devices.

The motherboard also has slots that other device cards can plug into and provide extended functionality to the computer. Some of the more common cards are wireless cards, USB extension cards (provide additional USB ports), and even video cards – which I talk about below.

CPU/Processor

The CPU (Core Processing Unit), also known as the processor, is the main logic component of the computer. It decides what to do, what to load, which other device to activate, etc. It’s kind of like the center of the brain.

The processor tends to get extremely hot, so it’s always covered by a heat sink (metal thing with fins) and a fan. The processor itself looks like a standard chip.

Hard Drive

The hard drive is the long-term memory of the computer. The long-term memory is slower and much bigger than the short-term memory, specifically made for storage of data. Read the section on main memory for information on short-term vs. long-term memory.

Main Memory

Also known as primary memory, RAM, or just memory, is the short-term memory component of the computer. Short-term memory is much, much faster than long term memory, but is also much, much smaller in size.

Main memory is not used for storage of data over the long term. Unlike the hard drive, main memory has to have power to keep information. Once the computer is turned off, the main memory is cleared out. Instead main memory is used for fast data access. Once the computer knows what data you’ll be working with, it loads it up in one big chunk into main memory, and works with it there. For example, when you run application xyz, your computer loads up lots of the common data that the application needs into memory, from then on it works with it in the much faster main memory. Then once you want to save your changes, the computer writes that data out to the hard drive for long term storage.

Video Card

The video card handles the display of images and 2D/3D graphics calculations. Often the video card comes integrated into the motherboard. But integrated video cards are somewhat weak. The powerful video cards, needed to run modern games and other graphically intensive applications, come as standalone cards. They are big circuit boards with their own processor (GPU) and memory. They even have fans and heat sinks. They are kind of like separate computers inside of the computer.

CD/DVD Drives

These are standard devices that read and sometimes write CDs and DVDs.

7 Different Types of Milling Machines

Milling machines come in various types with a variety of functions based on certain standard specifications. Some of the most commonly used machines are the following: column, turret, C-frame, horizontal, bed type, planer-style, and tracer controlled.

A milling machine is a tool in the metal industry that has numerous functions. Each machine has a cutter that operates at a various range of speed so you can form the required shape. With its adjustable spped feature, each milling machine can be regulated for a more precise cut. The machine is capable of handling multiple tasks such as carving, threading, milling, drilling, and cutting. There are several several types of milling machines, each with varying functions based on standard criteria. Manufacturers often name the different machines according to the kind of control, number of axis present, orientation of the spindle, size of the tool, its purpose, and source of power. While there are several varieties of milling machines available today, they essentially serve the same functions but use different terminologies. Below is the list of seven types of milling machines.

Column

This is the most common milling machine, which has 5 basic components, They are the work table, saddle, head, knee, and over arm. Considered as the simplest machine type, its cutting device is vertically suspended to allow drilling of metals. This is typically used when creating car parts because it is small and handy.

Turret

The turret is also known as the Bridgeport-type and can be repositioned anytime you want making this machine very functional. Its versatility makes it more practical since a variety of products can be made in addition to car parts.

C-frame

Because it is sturdier than a turret, this type is popular in industrial settings. It comes with a hydraulic motor, which makes it very powerful.

Horizontal

This machine runs parallel to the ground. The table from which the object to be worked on is placed moves sideways while the cutting device goes up and down.

Bed type

The worktable is located on the bed itself, instead of being paced on top, its usual position. The knee part of the machine is omitted to allow movement in a longitudinal direction.

Planer-style

This machine type is basically the same as the bed mill. However, the planner-style includes cutters and heads that allow for a wider range of milling actions.

Tracer controlled

This type of machine has the ability to reproduce parts based on a master model. Most of the industrial sectors, especially the automotive industry, choose this type of machine because it make production and specialization of machine parts easier. With the vast classifications of milling machines, you need to choose the one you need according to how you intend to use it. However if you find it difficult to decide, do not hesitate to seek the help of a specialist who can help you select the one that will give you maximum benefits.

Flashing Red Lights on Xbox 360 – Don’t Panic! All You Have to Do is Follow These Tips

You sit down for some serious gaming, and then you see it, a red light on your Xbox, or maybe multiple red lights! Is it time to panic yet? No, because most problems with the Xbox 360 are easy enough to fix. Here are some tips on how to easily solve some common problems.

If your system has overheated:

If your Xbox is showing the top left and bottom left lights flashing, then your system is cooking! This shouldn’t be a big problem as it’s just a matter of cooling her down to get things up and running again. Overheating is bad, as with any computer system, and it can cause your games to freeze up while you’re playing. If your system does succumb to overheating, simply shut it off and give it some time to cool down. Make sure the fan is running and that the vents aren’t blocked, and you should be fine. Running a cold bath for you and your system is however, a very bad idea.

If your system’s hardware is generally erroneous:

If you’re seeing flashing red on all but the top right light, then you’ve got yourself a general hardware error. There is nothing to panic about here either. The first thing to try is the good ol’ restart. Switch your system off, give it a few seconds and then turn it back on. If the problem hasn’t gone away, then turn the system off, remove the hard drive and turn the system back on. There’s a good chance your lights will all be green, and if so, simply turn the system off again, stick the hard drive back in and restart.

If all your lights are flashing, your AV cable needs to get its act together:

All four lights flashing means the AV cable can’t be detected. The obvious first attempt at a fix for this is to make sure it’s plugged in properly in the first place. If it is, unplug it and then re-attach it. No luck? Try wiping down the contact surfaces with a clean, dry cloth. Sometimes these surfaces get dirty, and that can cause problems. A good wipe may do the trick. If it doesn’t though, then it might be time to invest in a new cable.

If just the bottom right light is flashing, your hardware has failed. Time to let your inner mechanic out.

A single red light flashing in the bottom right corner means you have a hardware failure. This could be any number of errors, and you should see an error code on your screen. This code will allow you to figure out the exact error you’re dealing with. In the case of a hardware failure, you’ll probably need to do a little more invasive fixing. It isn’t hard, and anyone can do it, so long as they have good instructions! You’ll want to hit the net and find yourself a quality repair guide for this one. Poking around without being sure of what you’re doing first will probably do more harm than good.

Now that you know some simple steps you can take to help your Xbox when it’s sick, hopefully you should have no trouble when any future snafu’s come up during your gaming. Remember though, if you do need to do a more involved repair (as with a hardware failure), make sure to do your research first! It could mean the difference between fixing your system or turning it into an expensive paper weight!

Scope of Data Recovery Services

Losing an important document or file is enough to rob us of a peaceful night’s sleep. If we lose or are unable to access data due to a system crash or computer virus, it is time to invest in a strategic and affordable data recovery service. As opposed to prevention and backup, data recovery is a remedial measure. This process can reduce the danger of data loss to the lowest.

Data recovery services are comprehensive processes involved in recovering data from desktop drives, laptop drives, external drives, servers, RAID systems, Network Attached Storage devices (NAS), Storage Area Network devices (SAN), flash drives and camera media.

Scope of Data Recovery Services

There are various forms and repercussions of loss of data, so we divide the scope according to different symptoms:

  • System problem: This is caused by the inability of logging into the system or the system shutting down and displaying an abnormal behavior. There are various reasons for this anomaly and we need to adopt suitable recovery methods. Reasons for such symptoms may be a lost or damaged file, bad track on the hard disk, MBR or DBR is lost or incorrect CMOS settings.
  • Bad track on hard disk: Tracks can be either logical or physical. While logical tracks can be restored by data recovery software, physical track damage can be restored partially by changing the partition or sector. Proper backups must be done to ensure minimal physical damage.
  • Partition problem: If a partition cannot be identified or accessed, or is rendered unformatted, suitable partition recovery services should be deployed.
  • File loss:If important files are lost due to deletion, disk format or a clone error, file recovery services should be administered into the system to recover the lost files.
  • File repair: For some reasons, some files cannot be accessed or used. Also they may contain some characters that make it inaccessible. In such cases, special file recovery tools should be used to restore the files.

Data Recovery Service Tips: Some Do’s and Don’ts

Measures can be taken to minimize the blow when a computer failure happens. Understanding and recognizing the warning signals can make a significant difference for a successful data recovery operation.

Do’s

  • Backup essential data frequently.
  • If there is some problem with the computer, shut it down without delay.
  • If there is some unusual noise from the drive, power it down immediately.
  • Proper caution must be taken when shipping the drive to a data recovery specialist. Additional damage can occur if the drive is poorly packaged.

Don’ts

  • Do not assume that data recovery services are impossible. Even in the worst case scenario, data recovery specialists are usually able to retrieve important data.
  • It is not advisable to tamper with the hard drive.
  • The computer must be protected from all shocks and vibrations.
  • We should not subject the drive to extreme temperature.

OffSiteBackups has a high success rate and one of the fastest turnaround times in the industry. Log on to the website for a wide range of data recovery services.

iTunes Freezing – Why iTunes Keeps Freezing and How to Fix It

Do you have iTunes freezing problems? Do you complain that iTunes freezes up at random times? Before we get to fixing iTunes freezing problems, it is important to understand a little bit about iTunes itself.

Among the many free media players available, iTunes is widely popular because of its close integration with two of the most sought-after electronic gadgets of our time: the iPod and the iPhone. Both devices require Apple’s media player for many reasons, not the least of which is the transfer of media files from computers to the portable device.

Old-time users know, however, that iTunes has its good and bad sides. It is intuitive and sleek alright, but sometimes using the apps can be really frustrating. For one, frequent start-up problems or program freezes would surely test the patience of even the most ardent fans. These issues usually occur whenever new updates are installed, when a portable device is connected, when downloading content from the Internet, or when shutting down the program. Most probable causes of the instability are missing program files or the settings running askew due to recent updates.

While this may not look like a life and death situation, it is nevertheless imperative to enact corrective measures once the program freezes more frequently than it does before. For one, you would not want to risk losing your entire media library – including content purchased from the iTunes store – which is a real possibility if the program hangs and the portable device’s hard disk is corrupted due to an incomplete data write process.

Some practical ways to prevent iTunes from freezing include limiting the number of running applications to give iTunes all the memory it needs to do its tasks. Also, adjusting the program for manual updating of downloaded content would help, as it prevents simultaneous tasks – such as reading the media library, checking for new iTunes store contents, looking up settings in the registry – from running all at once when the program starts.

Another practical way to ensure that iTunes run smoothly is to have the registry checked periodically, to ensure that file associations, locations and other important data are accurate. The registry is the database that holds program parameters, user settings and system information, and often, changes in the system – like installing new programs – causes some files to be overwritten or deleted, making apps that uses such files inoperable.

More so for regularly updated programs like iTunes, as the frequent updating invariably leaves behind obsolete entries that in time would clutter up the database. Using a reliable registry cleaning program ensures that the registry is clear of debris and incorrect data, ensuring that applications run without a glitch, including iTunes.

Fix Your Corrupt PowerPoint Presentation by Using MS PowerPoint Recovery

Microsoft Office is one of the most common and popular software programs among all computer users. It is a software suite that contains several desktop applications for multiple purposes. As a computer user we use these applications on a daily basis. MS PowerPoint is one of them, which is used for creating and designing high-class presentation files. We all know the importance of presentation. It is widely used in almost every sector, for example:

  • For marketing promotion or corporate training session on businesses or large enterprises.
  • For teaching or training purposes in education sectors.

MS PowerPoint is one of the finest tools for creating presentation files. A presentation file may contain several pages, which are known as slides as they appear in sliding form. A slide of a presentation file may contain several file objects, such as: text, graphics, sound, movies and other objects. All these file objects make a presentation file more attractive and appealing. Microsoft PowerPoint saves presentation files in PPT or .ppt file extension. There are three types of file extension used by Microsoft PowerPoint:

  1. PPT: PPT file stores all presentation data in a single binary file. It is used by MS PowerPoint 2003 and its earlier versions.
  2. PPTX (Open XML): PPTX file is created by using the Open XML format. It stores the documents as a collection of separate files in compressed form. It can be opened in MS PowerPoint 2007 & 2010.
  3. PPTM (Open XML Macro Enabled): PPTM file, which is also known as macro-enabled presentation, contains embedded macros. It can be opened in MS PowerPoint 2007 & 2010.

It takes a lot of time and hard work to make a presentation file. A PPT file may be large as it contains several slides and various file-objects. Due to having a large size and complex structure it may get easily corrupted or damaged.

There is no computer file or application, which is immune to corruption. In the same way, presentation files are also prone to corruption. MS PowerPoint program becomes unable to open or read a corrupt file. There could be several unforeseen factors behind this corruption. Virus infection, unfinished or abruptly system shutdown, improper cancellation of presentation files or application, unexpected crash in system hard drive, software malfunction, human errors or mishandling a presentation, etc. are some of the common reasons of corruption. While opening a corrupt presentation file we may face some errors. Errors are the perfect indication of file corruption. Some of the most common errors are: “This is not a PowerPoint Presentation” or“File is corrupted or damaged”.

Whenever a file gets corrupted or damaged we need to repair it. We can use “Open and repair” to repair corrupt file, It is a built-in repair feature provided by MS Office to repair corrupt documents. It is one of the easiest and effective solutions to repair corrupt files. The steps, which are mainly required for this solution, are shown below:

  1. Open MS PowerPoint program. Click on Office button (on top of the left side).
  2. A list will be appearing. Click on Open.
  3. A small window will pop-up. Select corrupt file from the system directory.
  4. Click on the arrow of Open button. A list will be scrolled down.
  5. From the list, click on Open and repair. After some seconds, the file will be repaired and opened.

Note: Though this solution efficiently works with corrupt files, but if it does not work we must try the following solutions.

  • We should try to open a corrupt file in OpenOffice Impress.
  • We should try to open a corrupt file in MS Word. If it gets opened, we can recover at least the text part of the file.
  • We should try to import the slides from the damaged file into a new file.
  • If these solutions do not work, then we may use a third-party recovery tool for corrupt files. MS PowerPoint Recovery consists of PPT, PPTX and PPTM recovery tool, which can easily recover our data from corrupt PPT, PPTX and PPTM files. It does not overwrite or replace the old document. It creates a new file and saves all the recovered data into it. The tool works in self-describing mode as it is equipped with an automated wizard interface.

How to Solve Windows Operating System Problems – Repairing OS Problems Yourself

There are many reasons why you are encountering Windows operating system problems; depending on the severity of the issue, there are many ways where you can fix the trouble yourself as long as you know how to do it. Hence, we shall discuss few of these things here in this article; and if you want to know what they are, then read on and check them out.

One of the most common reasons why Windows operating system problems occur is the invasion of malicious programs like spyware and adware that are causing some changes on the configuration and settings of your computer OS. In some instances, virus attack can also cause this issue to emerge on your unit. Hence, you need to have some tools to protect your laptop from invasion of any of these harmful programs such as spyware removal tools and antivirus software. This may cost you a few dollars but it can save you a lot from further troubles that may require technical works done by expert technicians.

Another reason for this trouble to occur is your hard drive is almost full; causing system slowdown and resulting for some errors to occur. In order to manage this situation, unclog your hard drives through uninstallation of some programs that are no longer or rarely used. This consumes a lot of memory space on your hard drives; removing them from your unit would greatly improve its performance and bring to an end some problems related to your OS. Another good option is to defrag your computer in order to organize files and optimize its operation. It is highly recommended to perform defragmentation at least once a month in order to prevent problems relating to this issue.

Another common cause of Windows operating system problems to emerge is cluttered registry. This area is one of the central parts of your OS where important data are stored. It also records every single activity happening on your unit; consequently the more you use it, the more it accumulates data. Most of them are no longer needed and they are only adding up to the mound of junk files; causing a lot of errors and slowing down your processor.

In most cases, one of the best ways to fix Windows operating system problems is to use registry cleaning software which is very effective in eliminating all trash files and fix all problems in your OS; and the good thing about it is that you can do it yourself without being a computer geek.

How to Fix Error Code 8 Safely?

Possible Error Messages

“System Error. Code: 8. Not enough storage is available to process this command.”

“ERROR_NOT_ENOUGH_MEMORY”

Not enough storage is available to process this command.

“Error occurred while wizard was checking the current windows product

license. Error Code: 8 0x8007000e.”

It could be annoying to receive error messages like these from time to time when you are using your computer, trying to access files, installing programs, or update certain software. These error messages are actually warning you of corrupt registry or faulty hardware or programs.

We strongly suggest that you run a quick scan for error code scan for your PC to check and fix the errors.

How Error Code 8 Happens?

Error code 8 is in fact a message that tells you there is some malfunctioned hard ware device in your computer. It would occur when certain hard ware device in your PC is missing, or when the driver of a particular hard ware is not installed properly. Error messages like this also indicate insufficient memory on your hard drive. You should know that your system needs enough free space on your hard drive to ensure the efficiency of your computer.

Anyway, error code 8 is a fairly common error that one could get after frequent use. It is not a very complicated error and there is no need to panic when you see the error message show up.

How to Repair Error Code 8?

It is not likely that you have modified the registry of your computer that makes you get error code 8. Not being a computer expert, the solutions to this problem presented here are also very simple. You could understand it easily and fix the error manually in just a few minutes.

1. Click on the Start menu, go to the Control Panel and double click on Network

2. Select Add > Protocol > Add

3. Click on the Manufactures box > Microsoft > NetBEUI > click OK

4. Double click on the “Network Adapter” and select the Bindings tab

5. Modify the settings of the “NetBEUI protocol” and set it to “not bound to adapter”

If you want to speed up your computer…

– Delete files you do not use for months, such as movies, photos, music or games. By doing this you are actually sparing more free space on your hard drive. You should always make sure that your computer gets the sufficient memory it needs on your hard drive.

– Clean up your hard drive regularly. You can defrag your computer every a few months to clean the fragments left on your hard drive after frequent use. Remember too much fragments would slow down your computer eventually.

– Scan your computer for virus and scan your registry as well. This will help you check and remove all the possible threats and fix the errors in your registry.

To ensure the security and efficiency of your PC, get our ErrorCodeFix to fix Error code 8 in minutes.

Battlefield 2 Crashes on Startup, Solve the Problem Easily

Unfortunately, there were some users facing problem with their purchased copies of the game. In some cases, the game was crashing when the Splash Screen was loading (i.e. at the startup), while in others, they were able to play it for approximately 2 minutes and then it starts crashing. We will discuss those issues those cause Battlefield 2 crash on startup.

Tested Solutions:

1. Reduce the Monitor Refresh Rate below 60 Hz

2. Update Graphics and Sound Drivers

3. Improve the Registry Conditions

4. Fix Bad Sectors on your Hard Disk

5. Exclude Battlefield 2 from Data Execution Prevention (DEP)

6. Lower the Screen Resolution

Reduce the Monitor Refresh Rate

Sometimes Battlefield 2 crashes on startup if the monitor refresh rate is above 60 Hz. You shall set the monitor refresh rate below 60 Hz. For doing so, perform the following steps:

1. Click Start | Control Panel.

2. Click Appearance and Personalization | Display | Screen Resolution.

3. Click Advanced Settings link.

4. Click Monitor tab in the new dialog.

5. From the Monitor Settings frame and Screen Refresh Rate drop down box, select the value 60 Hertz.

6. Click OK | OK | Close | Close.

7. Restart the game.

Update Graphics & Sound Drivers and DirectX

A computer running with outdated graphics and sound drivers often results in Battlefield 2 crashes on startup. Update all your drivers from the respective manufacturer’s website.

It also crashes if the DirectX is outdated. You will find the latest version of DirectX on Microsoft’s official website. Please avoid downloading it from third-party websites for the possibility of getting spyware.

Improve the Registry Conditions

This is one of the most common sources of this problem. Battlefield 2 crashes on desktop if the registry is not properly configured. The registry may not be properly set-up by the Battlefield Installer or the game itself.

You need to use a third-party registry fixing product. Be sure while selecting a good product. Because a wrong product may harm your system in extreme cases.

Fix Bad Sectors on your Hard Disk

In some cases, it was found that the game was stored on bad sectors of the hard disk. This result in Battlefield 2 crashes on startup, as it does not able to neither extract the resources nor retrieve or save information in files.

You need to check your hard disk for these bad sectors and repair them as follow:

1. Open My Computer.

2. Right click the drive where the game is installed. For instance, drive C.

3. Select Properties | Tools | Check Now.

4. Click Start button.

5. Follow the on screen instructions.

6. After completion, restart the game.

Exclude Battlefield 2 from Data Execution Prevention (DEP)

Data Execution Prevention (DEP) is a security feature included in modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that is intended to prevent an application or service from executing code from a non-executable memory region. This helps prevent certain exploits that store code via a buffer overflow.

Many times, DEP prevents Battlefield 2 from running smoothly. You need to disable the DEP in order to stop Battlefield 2 crashes on desktop.

1. Click Start.

2. Right click My Computer and select Properties.

3. Click Advanced System Settings link.

4. Click Advanced tab.

5. Click Settings from the Performance frame.

6. Click Data Execution Prevention tab.

7. Select the option Turn on DEP for all programs and services except those I select.

8. Click Add button.

9. Select the game files [especially Executable files (.exe)], and click Open to add in the list of the files that needs to be excluded.

10. Click OK | OK | Close.

11. Restart the game.

Lower the Screen Resolution

Battlefield 2 crashes on startup if you are running from an unsupported screen resolution. Lower the screen resolution as below.

1. Right click Desktop.

2. Select Screen Resolution.

3. Select a lower resolution from the Resolution drop down box.

4. Click OK.

5. Restart the game.

Experts Recommendation

Chrome Error – How Do I Fix Google Chrome Error?

Has there been a kind of Chrome error in your Google Chrome web browser? That is not something unique happened to you. Over the time most Chrome users become victim to various browser related errors. Major irritants among there errors are the entire browser crash and the AW snap error.

In the first type of error there is a dreadful total crash of the browser. Most people can not even open the web browser. When they try to open it an error message appears which says, Whoa! Google Chrome Has Crashed. Restart Now.’ However, upon restarting nothing happens. One is left with recently installed settings and bookmarks about to be lost. There is, however, a mild instance of this error in which the browser does open but it can not perform well. Sometimes it either closes down or keep sending annoying error messages.

If you are facing the second type of error it is wise to back up all of your browser data and either synchronize it or save it in your computer hard disk. You can save the bookmarks in computer and later import these bookmarks in a newly installed web browser.

The second type or error is also irritating. In that error the web browser suddenly stops displaying the web pages. One has to reload the web pages many times to expect it to start working like normal. But in some intense cases this AW Snap error is not dealt upon refreshing the browser.

These two errors can be linked to the file association issues. The file association references are the important components of the registry database in Windows. The Windows registry is a very sensitive area and acts like computer brain as it stores information about software, hardware and the programs in the computer system.

If there occurs an error in the registry it can severely effect our computer. Systems can crash, freeze and hang due to the registry errors. Not to mention files do not open properly like Google Chrome error in our example.

Now the question is how to fix the Chrome error easily? You must try to identify the cause first of all. Then you shall repair registry to fix this issue.

A registry repair scan, which has the power to fix file association errors, will help you to find the solution for Google chrome error.

Recently I had suffered from it too. I conducted many scans but nothing worked for me.