Data Recovery Equipment

Today, computers are an integral and indispensable part of the IT world. No matter what your line may be, finance, education, business consulting and investigation, IT information security, or else. In fact, most people always take it for granted. You should never brag your computer can be failure-free.

The foremost use of computer is data storage. All the data is stored on a physical disk named hard disk drive which is a magnetic layer. And it is more likely to be stricken by a wide variety of reasons, such as a partition lost, system can not access, human mistake (accidental reformatting, deletion), file corruption, power surge, and virus attack, to the worst, these physical level failures typically are head crash, platter scratch, and motor failures caused by overwriting, physical damages, natural disasters, etc.

Sometimes a hard drive has been stricken dead or not working at all without any warning signs, but some other times there may be some clues that something is going bad or amiss. Such changes in performance or sudden blue screens are telltale signs that the hard drive may be on its way to collapse. The most obvious and common sign are clicking, squealing, scraping or grinding noises.

The computer become more involved in our daily life, so the danger of data loss also surfaces.

As most of us have already experienced data loss, it could be frustrated and traumatic, when you finally find your critical data are not able to recover. As a matter of fact, logical failures as I previously mentioned, a data recovery software program can simply work out, but speaking of physical failures, No! Those drives with minor physical failures will need a special equipment to repair hard drive itself or recover data.

Why data recovery software will stop there? The ordinary user-level repeated-read access method that is used by imaging software bring a risk of damaging the disk and head, making data lost irretrievable. Also the software skips bad sectors directly in order not to get hang (freeze). Even so it gets hang most of the time in case the drive has lost of bad sectors. Plus, there is no guarantee that all the data will be extracted as much as possible, though days or weeks of time wasted on imaging bad drives. That’s why you should avoid it at all cost.

A unique data recovery equipment known as Data Compass is mostly used among experts and practitioners worldwide, where traditional tools can not reach the height. Data Compass reads data of each sector physically byte-to-byte, including good and bad, and copy to a good disk using its data extraction software and hardware. “Shadow Disk” technology allows Data Compass to maximally avoid further damage to the drive, and ensure the data is not lost from repeated recovery attempts.

Technically speaking, it is hard to figure out how exactly the data can be recovered. It all depends. In most cases, data will be able to recover as long as the parts of hard drive are not severely damaged, otherwise you should swap its components then like platters, heads, and a spindle motor, for example.

A current tool named “hard drive head/platter exchange professional” used for drive disassembling and head/platter exchange will be replaced by the vendor soon. The change is made for optimization reason, and the new product is a better enhancement; plus, the new platter exchanger allows users to work on hard drive with spacers between platters.

If you have known much about data recovery and if you have a craving for this field, you should start your own business with a right equipment and then you can be an expert. Of course, it is not easy to find a proper option from current data recovery equipments with sky-high price in economy hard times. It is even worse when comes to new versions of software to products you are possessing, vendors will charge every time. In this case, free of charge upgrade service is the way to go.

All rights reserved. Free to copy. No adaptation.

A digital marketing task by Kelvin Scotts, top social media agency that provides full suite social media marketing singapore services.

Power Tools – A Brief Overview

If you are a DIY (do it yourself) enthusiast and love to craft different kinds of crafts, then you must understand the value and advantages of using power tools over the conventional manual tools. There is a huge difference between these two types of tools in terms of functionality, efficiency and features. However, some people get confused between manual tools and power tools. Let’s read to understand what power tools are, and their functionalities, features, and applications.

What are Power tools?

Power tools are different types of mechanical devices and tools that actuated when they are initiated by an external power source. This could generally be air, electricity and pneumatics. These tools are one of the most time-saving devices ever created. Through the use of electricity, compressed air or combustion, they allow users to complete the job efficiently and quickly, that could either not accomplish or would take a longer time when handled using conventional devices. Because of their working efficiency, technical advancement, and innovative features, they are used in a wide range of applications in the field of construction, welding industry, manufacturing industry and around the house for the purpose of drilling, shaping, polishing, heating, painting, grinding and so on.

These devices can be divided into numerous categories on the basis of power source, portability, and purpose. Two categories in which power tools are mainly categorized include:

Stationary mechanical devices

The stationary devices are either large-shaped machines that are not easily movable or machines that are tightly fastened to a stationary object in order to work properly and efficiently. The stationary model machines are generally used for smoothness, power and precision, wherein the portable power tools are used for convenience and for the job that require low power.

Portable mechanical devices

Portable devices are hand-held machines and are usually used for handling small jobs such as drilling, shaping, welding, polishing, grinding and so on. These machines are small in size and light-weighted. This means they can be easily carried anywhere.

They are also divided into three categories on the basis of power source, i.e. electric powered, compressed air and combustion. They can also be categorized by their purposes. Some of the common types of power tools include air compressor, alligator shear, lathe, lawn mower, angle grinder, heat gun, grinding machine, strimmer, table saw, impact driver, steel cut off saw and so on.

Since these mechanical devices are usually expensive, it is advised to trust only on branded products. Dewalt, Bosch, Making, Milwaukee, 3M, Bramley, AMS, AMPCO, Anderson, Aurand, Black & Decker, Bostitch, Band-IT, B & A, Echo, Diamond X, Dremel, Eclipse are some of the top brands on which you can trust for buying safe, power efficient and superior quality power tools. When going to buy such devices, you should compare the prices, features, and the power efficiency of products of different brands in order to buy the right machines for your specific application.

Power tools play a very significant role in completing the job safely and precisely. So, whenever you are going to buy such mechanical devices, then select only branded tools to get the best value for your investment.

A viral marketing project by Kelvin Scotts, best social media agency singapore that provides complete social media marketing services.

Importance of PDF Files

Portable Document Format is a computer application used for transmitting extensive information from one system to another. This electronic format enables the users in getting bulky content across multiple platforms easily and swiftly. The PDF file format is independent of the computer operating system, computer hardware and application software. This attribute makes the PDF file format portable and compatible on any system. It is can incorporate hyperlinks, bookmarks, text, graphics or multimedia content. Therefore, PDF is widely used by the computer users all over the globe.

Significance of PDF file format:

Portable Document Format is used for effective coordination between the physically distant people. In other words, you can store, transmit and exchange data with any other computer user using system with different configurations. The PDF format can be used for managing vast amount of information in electronic files rather than handling bulky papers. There are chances of papers being spoiled with the passage of time. You may need to store the papers in the shelves and maintain those shelves or the store room. Then using papers lead to the increase in its demand. In order to make papers, industries need wood which is obtained by the trees. The felling of trees leads to ruining of green environment. However, such is not in the case of using electronic documents. You can use the PDF format for storing extensive data such as graphics, images, charts, tables or hyperlinks and much more.

A person can add interactive features in the files in this format. You can incorporate multimedia content to these files. A person can protect the content of the PDF files from being hampered or damaged. It is easy to set the security features in the PDF files. One can protect the PDF files from unauthorized copying, editing, viewing or printing. This protects the misuse of content in the documents. You can also recover a file in this format when it gets corrupt. There are many tools and techniques available which help you in recovering the corrupt PDF files easily. One can create PDF files out of any other format and convert the PDF format into any other application. The conversion ability and other beneficial features of these files make the task of the user smooth and flexible. There are various conversion tools available in market to convert different file formats into PDF. For instance, you can use word to PDF converter software to make conversion fast and easy.

A viral marketing task by Kelvin Scotts, top marketing agencies in singapore that provides full suite social media marketing services.

How to Recover Deleted Emails and Restore Them Completely

It can happen to anyone. We accidentally delete an email that we really need. And it just happened to be important work file, attachment or picture. So now what? How can I recover that email? Is it at all possible? Surely, it can be permanently deleted?

Well, there is good news and bad news.

Let’s start with the good news.

Restoring Deleted Emails

If you delete an email, it hasn’t really gone anywhere. Even if you’ve emptied your recycle bin or the “Trash” folder in your Inbox – the email still isn’t deleted. It’s just that your computer system now has no way to figure out where it is. But it’s there, still on your hard drive. By using special email recovery tools you can recover deleted emails because these programs identify these ‘missing’ files and can bring them back to life.

Now the bad news.

Act Quickly and Increase Your Chances

The bad news is you have to act quickly. You only have a small time-frame in which to try to attempt to recover your lost email. Every minute that you waste and continue to use the drive for anything that isn’t related to recovering your emails, you severely decrease your chances of successful email recovery. Why?

Well, because your hard drive is constantly overwriting files to make space for new information you put into it. If your hard drive is full and there is not much space or memory available – it is highly probable that the email has already been overwritten and deleted – permanently.

Other Problems with Recovering Deleted Emails

Not all deleted or lost emails go to “Trash” folder. If you have suffered a computer crash or hardware failure or your operating system is corrupted in some way, then it is unlikely that emails you have deleted can be recovered.

Also, if you haven’t opened the email at all or it hasn’t been deleted the usual way due to file corruption, you probably will have less of a chance to recover and restore the email in its entirety.

Nothing to Lose

Recover deleted email programs search and locate the emails that you have deleted. You can search by entering a specific keyword for example. Then, you can choose to preview the email to see it’s contents and if it’s been recovered in its original state by the program. You can also select to scan for what ever email program you are using (and need to recover) – either web based emails such as Hotmail, Yahoo and Gmail or Outlook Express.

Best bit is this. Most of these email recovery programs are free to download. When they start scanning your hard drive looking for the deleted email and then manage to find it and when you are completely satisfied that that’s your missing email – then you can then proceed to purchase the software.

In essence, you have nothing to lose (if the email is not there – it’s not there) and everything to gain.

Well, at least you can get your deleted email back.

How to Retrieve Deleted Text Messages From a Samsung CDMA Cellular Device

Have you noticed some changes in your relationship or marriage that make you feel uneasy? You may have even caught your husband deleting text messages from his cell phone when he realized you seen him texting. These are just a very few of the many signs that usually occur when an innocent individual is involved with a cheating spouse of partner. Unfortunately, far too many people eventually just resolve to the fact that they will never be able to catch their cheating partners that are engaging in infidelity. The good news is there is another option available, when you rely on an expert to retrieve deleted text messages from your partners Samsung CDMA cellular device.

Consulting with a professional in cell phone forensic investigations is a service that can provide you with a variety of helpful information when you would like to confront a spouse that is having an affair. They have the ability to retrieve deleted text messages and other information such as the data that is listed below:

– File system

– NV memory dump

– EEPROM/ROM/Flash memory dump

– Device properties

– Calendar

– History of erased calls that were made and received

– Detailed phone book information

– NAND memory dump

– SMS text history

– Other erased data

Before you think about trying SIM card readers that you can purchase over-the-counter, it would be advisable to speak with a professional first. These readers are well known for the damage that they can cause to the data that is on cellular devices. To make matters worse, you will generally never be able to retrieve deleted text or data after it has become damaged. It is much better to let an expert perform a cell phone forensic investigation. They have the specialized equipment and the knowledge to perform investigations on Samsung CDMA cellular devices in as little as 48 hours.

There are many different reasons why there are more individuals than ever before that are depending on investigators that know how to retrieve deleted text messages and other forms of important data, and a few of the most common reasons would include the following:

– Employers trying to catch employees who have engaged in theft

– Innocent individuals that are faced with the need to catch cheating partners

– Parents that suspect their teenager is partaking in various actions that include the use of illegal drug substances, bullying teenagers or other children, and sending or receiving sext messages (sexting)

Copyright (c) 2010 Ed Opperman

A digital marketing task by Kelvin Scotts, top social media agency singapore that provides complete social media marketing singapore services.

Everything You Need to Know About USB Write-Protection

In spite of all the buzz regarding digital distribution, fulfilling your content on physical medium, like a USB flash drive, is still a very critical aspect of any business. You may have large data files or would just like to have your content branded. Whether you plan to fulfill software or a large library of video files, a USB key (a flash-based storage device, also known as USB flash drive or thumb drive) is widely supported by most computer systems and smart devices. Unlike other storage devices such as magnetic tapes, compact discs or memory cards, USB flash drives do not have any built-in write-protection mechanism unless you choose to work with a provider who can work on the controller level and make the USB a read-only device. A write-protected USB will ensure that your content is secure and not accidentally erased.

  • Safeguard Against Malicious Activity: When a disk is write-protected, files can be read or copied from the disk, but nothing can be saved or copied to it. This can help prevent you, or anyone else, from accidentally deleting or saving over important files. Most importantly, a write-protected USB is safer since it can not be infected by any viruses or other malicious activity. For example, let’s say you have a software package which is distributed on USB media. It is important that the company write-protects the flash drive because not only do you not want to spread any viruses, but you also do not want a third party messing with your software and saving the changes on your USB stick.
  • Better Customer Experience: A USB flash drive behaves like a removable storage. If you accidentally delete files from a USB flash drive you are out of luck. The deleted files do not go in the recycle bin so you will not be able to recover the files once they have been deleted. You want to make sure your content doesn’t accidentally get deleted which can result in an unwanted, expensive support service call with a frustrated customer.
  • USB is Unlike Other Storage Devices: Whether you had IBM’s ½ inch magnetic tape, a floppy disk, a CD-ROM, or SD card, there has always been an option to write-protect your content. On the other hand, USB does not have this selection. IBM’s magnetic tape had a circular groove on one side of the reel, into which a soft plastic ring had to be placed in order to write on the tape. A floppy disk was write-protected when the plastic tab at the top was moved to reveal a “hole” in the disk. Sliding the tab up or down switched the floppy disk to enable or disable write-protection. Memory cards used in your camera have the option to write-protect. Standard CD or DVD-ROMs are “Read Only Memory,” which means the content is written once and used for reading only. CD and DVDs are still the most viable form of distributing your content as the content is secure and very economical to produce and distribute. However, the dominance of drive-less computers is forcing companies to choose USB flash drives as an alternative medium. For this reason, an easy write-protection option is a very desirable feature.
  • Requires Technical Expertise to Write-Protect: A USB Flash drive can be write-protected. It requires sending a command to the controller and turning off the SCSI write command. The IC chip on a USB stick is called the controller and it is a chip which controls the read and write process between the USB memory and the host computer it is connected to. The SCSI write command (Small Computer System Interface) is unique to each USB controller on the market, so there is no universal command. A good service bureau who has expertise in data pre-loading and duplication services can easily control the command in the controller and help produce write-protected USBs.

In conclusion, even though USB flash drive does not have an easy way to write-protect your content, you must find a way to secure your content if you are choosing to fulfill your digital content on USB. This will safeguard your organization’s interests and allow for a better customer experience.

A viral marketing project by Kelvin Scotts, best marketing agencies in singapore that provides complete social media in singapore services.

How To Quickly Make A Bootable USB Stick With FreeBSD

Install FreeBSD, or use an existing FreeBSD installation, and follow these steps:

1) First, you need to prepare and format your USB stick:

fdisk -BI /dev/da0
bsdlabel -B -w da0s1
newfs -U -O1 /dev/da0s1a
boot0cfg -v -B da0
(“-U -O1” [“O” like in Olympus, not zero] is for UFS1 which provides much faster copying than UFS2; if you decide for UFS2, type “-U -O2” – but expect that the copying will be slower)

2) Then mount it: mount /dev/da0s1a /usb
3) Copy all directories (FreeBSD) to the stick
4) After copying, modify the /usb/boot/loader.conf (explained below)
5) In the /boot directory on your USB stick you must have MFS (Memory File System – mfsroot.gz), which you will make (instructions are below)
6) Modify your /etc/fstab in MFS and put the following line (only) there:
/dev/md0 / ufs rw 0 0
7) After you boot your computer with the stick, you will be in the MFS environment from which you will mount your USB stick with mount_nullfs (described below)

Modification of /boot/loader.conf on your USB stick

You must have the following lines in your /boot/loader.conf (some lines are optional):

mfsroot_load=”YES”
mfsroot_type=”mfs_root”
mfsroot_name=”/boot/mfsroot”
nullfs_load=”YES”
splash_bmp_load=”YES”
vesa_load=”YES”
geom_uzip_load=”YES”
geom_label_load=”YES”
bitmap_load=”YES”
bitmap_name=”/boot/splash.bmp”
snd_driver_load=”YES”
kern.maxfiles=”25000″
kern.maxusers=”64″
vfs.root.mountfrom=”/dev/md0″

# Additional filesystem drivers

udf_load=”YES”
linux_load=”YES”
fuse_load=”YES”
ntfs_load=”YES”
ext2fs_load=”YES”
reiserfs_load=”YES”

Making your own MFS

FreeBSD, after the kernel boots, can use the root file system in memory (mfsroot_load=”YES” command in /boot/loader.conf will do the trick). To build such a memory file system, type the command:
dd if = /dev/zero of = mfsroot bs = 1024k count = 42

The mfsroot file of about 40 MB in size will be created. You need to format it, mount it and copy the most important files into it from your FreeBSD system (/bin, /sbin, /etc, /root….):

mdconfig -a -f mfsroot md0
newfs /dev/md0
mount /dev/md0 /mnt

Once copied, you must unmount it and gzip it: gzip mfsroot

Optionally, you can chroot it to see if everything works, then copy the mfsroot.gz to /usb/boot onto your USB flash drive (or disk). If you think it may be a problem to pick the most important files for your MFS (from your FreeBSD installation), search for mfsbsd in Google and either use its toolset or the MFS image alone (contained in the downloadable ISO of mfsbsd).

After booting from the USB stick (you will jump into MFS), you must mount the physical USB stick:

/sbin/mount -o ro /dev/da0s1a /usb
/sbin/mount_nullfs /usb/boot /boot
/sbin/mount_nullfs /usb/usr /usr

The above commands will help you use the big /usr directory on your USB stick instead of the /usr dir in MFS. mount_nullfs /usb/boot /boot is optional, as in your MFS/boot directory only the following files are needed for the little MFS to boot (/boot/kernel directory in MFS): geom_label.ko, geom_uzip.ko, zlib.ko a their debug symbols (zlib.ko.symbols, etc.). By mounting the /usb/boot dir via mount_nullfs into the /boot directory in your MFS you will be able to load kernel modules.

How an Operating System’s File System Works

File systems are an integral part of any operating systems with the capacity for long term storage. There are two distinct parts of a file system, the mechanism for storing files and the directory structure into which they are organised. In modern operating systems where it is possible for several user to access the same files simultaneously it has also become necessary for such features as access control and different forms of file protection to be implemented.

A file is a collection of binary data. A file could represent a program, a document or in some cases part of the file system itself. In modern computing it is quite common for their to be several different storage devices attached to the same computer. A common data structure such as a file system allows the computer to access many different storage devices in the same way, for example, when you look at the contents of a hard drive or a cd you view it through the same interface even though they are completely different mediums with data mapped on them in completely different ways. Files can have very different data structures within them but can all be accessed by the same methods built into the file system. The arrangement of data within the file is then decided by the program creating it. The file systems also stores a number of attributes for the files within it.

All files have a name by which they can be accessed by the user. In most modern file systems the name consists of of three parts, its unique name, a period and an extension. For example the file ‘bob.jpg’ is uniquely identified by the first word ‘bob’, the extension jpg indicates that it is a jpeg image file. The file extension allows the operating system to decide what to do with the file if someone tries to open it. The operating system maintains a list of file extension associations. Should a user try to access ‘bob.jpg’ then it would most likely be opened in whatever the systems default image viewer is.

The system also stores the location of a file. In some file systems files can only be stored as one contiguous block. This has simplifies storage and access to the file as the system then only needs to know where the file begins on the disk and how large it is. It does however lead to complications if the file is to be extended or removed as there may not be enough space available to fit the larger version of the file. Most modern file systems overcome this problem by using linked file allocation. This allows the file to be stored in any number of segments. The file system then has to store where every block of the file is and how large they are. This greatly simplifies file space allocation but is slower than contiguous allocation as it is possible for the file to be spread out all over the disk. Modern operating systems overome this flaw by providing a disk defragmenter. This is a utility that rearranges all the files on the disk so that they are all in contiguous blocks.

Information about the files protection is also integrated into the file system. Protection can range from the simple systems implemented in the FAT system of early windows where files could be marked as read-only or hidden to the more secure systems implemented in NTFS where the file system administrator can set up separate read and write access rights for different users or user groups. Although file protection adds a great deal of complexity and potential difficulties it is essential in an environment where many different computers or user can have access to the same drives via a network or time shared system such as raptor.

Some file systems also store data about which user created a file and at what time they created it. Although this is not essential to the running of the file system it is useful to the users of the system.

In order for a file system to function properly they need a number of defined operations for creating, opening and editing a file. Almost all file systems provide the same basic set of methods for manipulating files.

A file system must be able to create a file. To do this there must be enough space left on the drive to fit the file. There must also be no other file in the directory it is to be placed with the same name. Once the file is created the system will make a record of all the attributes noted above.

Once a file has been created we may need to edit it. This may be simply appending some data to the end of it or removing or replacing data already stored within it. When doing this the system keeps a write pointer marking where the next write operation to the file should take place.

In order for a file to be useful it must of course be readable. To do this all you need to know the name and path of the file. From this the file system can ascertain where on the drive the file is stored. While reading a file the system keeps a read pointer. This stores which part of the drive is to be read next.

In some cases it is not possible to simply read all of the file into memory. File systems also allow you to reposition the read pointer within a file. To perform this operation the system needs to know how far into the file you want the read pointer to jump. An example of where this would be useful is a database system. When a query is made on the database it is obviously inefficient to read the whole file up to the point where the required data is, instead the application managing the database would determine where in the file the required bit of data is and jump to it. This operation is often known as a file seek.

File systems also allow you to delete files. To do this it needs to know the name and path of the file. To delete a file the systems simply removes its entry from the directory structure and adds all the space it previously occupied to the free space list (or whatever other free space management system it uses).

These are the most basic operations required by a file system to function properly. They are present in all modern computer file systems but the way they function may vary. For example, to perform the delete file operation in a modern file system like NTFS that has file protection built into it would be more complicated than the same operation in an older file system like FAT. Both systems would first check to see whether the file was in use before continuing, NTFS would then have to check whether the user currently deleting the file has permission to do so. Some file systems also allow multiple people to open the same file simultaneously and have to decide whether users have permission to write a file back to the disk if other users currently have it open. If two users have read and write permission to file should one be allowed to overwrite it while the other still has it open? Or if one user has read-write permission and another only has read permission on a file should the user with write permission be allowed to overwrite it if theres no chance of the other user also trying to do so?

Different file systems also support different access methods. The simplest method of accessing information in a file is sequential access. This is where the information in a file is accessed from the beginning one record at a time. To change the position in a file it can be rewound or forwarded a number of records or reset to the beginning of the file. This access method is based on file storage systems for tape drive but works as well on sequential access devices (like mordern DAT tape drives) as it does on random-access ones (like hard drives). Although this method is very simple in its operation and ideally suited for certain tasks such as playing media it is very inefficient for more complex tasks such as database management. A more modern approach that better facilitates reading tasks that aren’t likely to be sequential is direct access. direct access allows records to be read or written over in any order the application requires. This method of allowing any part of the file to be read in any order is better suited to modern hard drives as they too allow any part of the drive to be read in any order with little reduction in transfer rate. Direct access is better suited to to most applications than sequential access as it is designed around the most common storage medium in use today as opposed to one that isn’t used very much anymore except for large offline back-ups. Given the way direct access works it is also possible to build other access methods on top of direct access such as sequential access or creating an index of all the records of the file speeding to speed up finding data in a file.

On top of storing and managing files on a drive the file system also maintains a system of directories in which the files are referenced. Modern hard drives store hundreds of gigabytes. The file system helps organise this data by dividing it up into directories. A directory can contain files or more directories. Like files there are several basic operation that a file system needs to a be able to perform on its directory structure to function properly.

It needs to be able to create a file. This is also covered by the overview of peration on a file but as well as creating the file it needs to be added to the directory structure.

When a file is deleted the space taken up by the file needs to be marked as free space. The file itself also needs to be removed from the directory structure.

Files may need to be renamed. This requires an alteration to the directory structure but the file itself remains un-changed.

List a directory. In order to use the disk properly the user will require to know whats in all the directories stored on it. On top of this the user needs to be able to browse through the directories on the hard drive.

Since the first directory structures were designed they have gone through several large evolutions. Before directory structures were applied to file systems all files were stored on the same level. This is basically a system with one directory in which all the files are kept. The next advancement on this which would be considered the first directory structure is the two level directory. In this There is a singe list of directories which are all on the same level. The files are then stored in these directories. This allows different users and applications to store there files separately. After this came the first directory structures as we know them today, directory trees. Tree structure directories improves on two level directories by allowing directories as well as files to be stored in directories. All modern file systems use tree structure directories, but many have additional features such as security built on top of them.

Protection can be implemented in many ways. Some file systems allow you to have password protected directories. In this system. The file system wont allow you to access a directory before it is given a username and password for it. Others extend this system by given different users or groups access permissions. The operating system requires the user to log in before using the computer and then restrict their access to areas they dont have permission for. The system used by the computer science department for storage space and coursework submission on raptor is a good example of this. In a file system like NTFS all type of storage space, network access and use of device such as printers can be controlled in this way. Other types of access control can also be implemented outside of the file system. For example applications such as win zip allow you to password protect files.

There are many different file systems currently available to us on many different platforms and depending on the type of application and size of drive different situations suit different file system. If you were to design a file system for a tape backup system then a sequential access method would be better suited than a direct access method given the constraints of the hardware. Also if you had a small hard drive on a home computer then there would be no real advantage of using a more complex file system with features such as protection as it isn’t likely to be needed. If i were to design a file system for a 10 gigabyte drive i would use linked allocation over contiguous to make the most efficient use the drive space and limit the time needed to maintain the drive. I would also design a direct access method over a sequential access one to make the most use of the strengths of the hardware. The directory structure would be tree based to allow better organisation of information on the drive and would allow for acyclic directories to make it easier for several users to work on the same project. It would also have a file protection system that allowed for different access rights for different groups of users and password protection on directories and individual files.Several file systems that already implement the features I’ve described above as ideal for a 10gig hard drive are currently available, these include NTFS for the Windows NT and XP operating systems and ext2 which is used in linux.

Best Regards,

Sam Harnett MSc mBCS

Pixeko Studio – Web Developers in Kent

A social media marketing task by Kelvin Scotts, top digital agency singapore that provides full suite social media marketing services.

How to Disable the Most Recently Used (MRU) List and Delete MRU Entries in Windows XP

Data privacy is becoming a big issue nowadays. Especially with shared computers, it becomes important to have some way of keeping private data secure and inaccessible. Because of this, many operating systems already offer built-in security measures that can create separate password protected accounts for different users, or even simply password protect specific files or folders. Most internet browsers also offer the option of clearing private data accumulated from browsing sessions, such as website history, cookies, and so on.

However, there is another, less obvious way of sneaking a peek at private information: MRU or most recently used lists. These lists are implemented by many programs, and keep track of which items have been most recently accessed on the computer. While this was intended to simply be a convenient feature to grant easy access to recently used items, they also represent a moderate vulnerability. That is, these MRU lists, if left filled, enable other users to possible look at the details of what one has been working on, what documents have been accessed recently, and so on.

For those who do not use these MRU lists and would like to disable them, the first step is to stop the creation of new entries on these lists. In Windows XP, this can be done by editing the registry. (A note of caution: editing the registry incorrectly may cause serious problems for the operating system. Be sure to double check each step of the process, and be extra careful whenever working with the registry.)

Click Start, then Run, and type “regedit”. After clicking OK, the Registry Editor will open. Look for the entry

“HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesComdlg32”. If this entry is not found, meaning that it does not yet exist, create it by clicking to the Policies key. Then go to the Edit menu, select New (then select Key), type in “comdlg32” and press Enter.

Once the “Comdlg32” key is created, go to the Edit menu and select New again. This time, select DWORD Value. In the entry box that pops up, type in “nofilemru” and click OK or press Enter. Finally, go to the Edit menu again, select Modify, type in 1, and press Enter. Then the registry editing is finished, and no more new MRU entries are going to be created.

For those entries that have already been created and are already on the MRU list, it is necessary to download MRU deletion utilities. There are several options available on the internet for download, of varying sizes and feature packages. Some of these utilities would also be able to detect and delete browsing histories, browser caches, and cookies, along with MRU items. Others are smaller and to the point, deleting only MRU entries for specific programs. Depending on one’s particular need, one should select the proper MRU deletion software. The use of these programs is typically described either in an online help file or within the program itself, while it is running.

Use of these MRU deletion programs, after disabling the MRU list in the registry, will ensure that no information would be available to others through MRU items.

Common Installation Problems With McAfee

McAfee antivirus products are the most reliable and dependable security solutions across the world. However, like other security solutions, McAfee antivirus programs have their share of problems too. This article discusses some of the common McAfee installation problems and their solutions. These include antivirus software validation failure, unsuccessful installation, missing file, computer hangs during the procedure, and update issues or Common Update Error after installation among others. Check the below mentioned free McAfee installation support guide for tips on troubleshooting the installation problems.

Instructions:

Make sure that you log in as an administrator to your computer. Download and install the latest updates for your Windows computer before installing a McAfee product. Also, make sure that you remove your existing security software (if you are running one on your computer) before installing the software. Remember, two security programs always conflict with each other and may cause your computer to hang other than making each other inoperable.

Firewall often creates problems during the installation. So, if you are running a firewall program like ZoneAlarm, turn it off. You can turn it back on after installation. Do not forget to configure your firewall program to allow the McAfee software to run properly. Besides, always check whether your computer meets the minimum system requirements to install McAfee or not. It helps you avoid facing McAfee installation problems during the installation procedure.

If the explorer.exe crashes making your computer freeze after launching the McShield service, use this method. Reboot your computer in Safe Mode. When the computer starts, immediately start tapping the F8 key. Keep pressing the key until you see the boot menu. Select Safe Mode and hit the Enter key. When done, click the Start button and select Run. Type ‘msconfig’ (without quotes) in the Open field and hit Enter again. When in System Configuration Utility, click the Services tab. disable McAfee Framework Service, Network Associates McShield, and Network Associates Task Manager by deselecting the boxes next to them. Click the OK button and restart your computer.

Now open your web browser and visit the McAfee website. Look for the latest patch file (update) for your McAfee version and download it. Save and run the file. When done, open the Run utility again and run the ‘msconfig’ command. Click the General tab in the System Configuration Utility window. Click the button next to Normal Startup – load all device drivers and services. Click the Apply button and then OK to save the changes and close the window. When prompted, confirm the action and reboot your computer.

If you get a Common Update Error message after installing McAfee antivirus, it indicates that the installation is damaged due to a newly installed update. Uninstall McAfee antivirus completely from your computer. Go to Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel, select the McAfee Security Center or Enterprise (whatever your product’s name is) and click the Change/Remove button. When prompted, confirm the action. Select the components that you want to remove and hit the Remove button. Wait for the process to finish. When done, reboot your computer.

When done, insert your McAfee antivirus setup disk in the disk drive and wait for the automatic prompt to appear. Follow the on-screen prompts as you did previously, but carefully and finish the installation. Make sure that you enter each and every piece of information correctly wherever required. Select your custom features and configure the settings. When done, reboot your computer and get going.

Additional Info:

In case you continue to face problems during the McAfee install, contact McAfee technical support or McAfee product support.

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