Wallace Nutting Hand – Colored Photographs

Wallace Nutting sold more hand-colored photographs during America’s 1900-1940 “Golden Age of Hand-Colored Photography” than any other photographer of his time. It is estimated that between 5,000,000-10,000,000 of his pictures decorated the walls of middle class American homes during the early 20th century. Why was Wallace Nutting so successful? And why are his pictures still being widely collected today? This article represents a basic introduction into the world of Wallace Nutting Pictures.

It was shortly after 1900 that Wallace Nutting retired from the ministry due to ill health (he was a Congregational Minister in Providence RI at the time). As part of his recovery, he began touring the New England countryside by carriage or car, taking photographs of rural New England. Nutting was one of the first to recognize that the American scene was changing. Industrialization was altering the way our country looked and our pure and picturesque landscape would never look the same again. He seemed to feel it his divine calling to record the beauty of America for future generations.

Beginning first in Vermont, then Massachusetts and Connecticut, and eventually throughout the rest of New England, Nutting began photographing country lanes, streams, rivers, lakes, orchards, blossoms, birches, and mountains. Wallace Nutting would take the photograph, assign a title, and instruct his colorists how it should be hand-tinted. Each picture that met Nutting’s high standards of color, composition, and taste would be affixed to its matting and signed by his employees with the distinctive “Wallace Nutting” name. (He hardly ever signed any pictures by himself). Those pictures that did not meet his strict standards were destroyed. Beginning first with outdoor (Exterior) scenes in New England, Nutting eventually traveled throughout the United States and Europe, taking photographs in 26 states and 17 foreign countries between 1900-1935. Overall, he took more than 50,000 pictures, 10,000 of which he felt met his high standards. The balance were destroyed.

It was around 1905 that Nutting began taking his first indoor (Interior) pictures. Supposedly one day while it was raining outside, Mrs. Nutting suggested that he take a more “Personable” picture indoors. So, he set up a colonial scene, near a kitchen hearth, had an employee dress up in a colonial fashion, and took several different pictures. These sold relatively easily which encouraged him to expand more into this area. Nutting’s love of antiques, his passion for the pilgrim period, and his unquestionable desire to turn a profit led him to eventually purchase and restore five colonial homes:

  • Webb House, Wethersfield, CT
  • Wentworth-Gardner House, Portsmouth, NH
  • Cutler-Bartlett House, Newburyport, MA
  • Hazen-Garrison House, Haverhill, MA
  • Saugus Iron Works (Broadhearth), Saugus, MA

Nutting purchased these homes because he felt each represented a different period of early colonial American style and taste. It was here, along with his own homes Nuttinghame (Southbury, CT) and Nuttingholme (Framingham, MA), that the majority of his Interior pictures were taken. Nutting’s desire to provide the most correct and appropriate settings for his Interior scenes led him in his quest to gather one of the best collections of early American furniture ever assembled. He would use the best examples of early American furniture in his Interior scenes and, when he couldn’t find it, he would reproduce it. (We’ll focus on his reproduction furniture in a subsequent article).

Working in Southbury CT from 1905-12, and then in Framingham MA from 1912 until his death in 1941, Nutting sold literally millions of his hand-colored photographs. He claims to have sold around 10,000,000 pictures although, knowing his habit of exaggeration, that number is probably somewhat high.

Whatever the true number, it was large. Wallace Nutting pictures were sometimes called “poor man’s prints“. Sold throughout the first quarter of the 20th century, well before the invention of color photography, these pictures initially sold literally for pennies. His market was primarily the middle and lower middle classes…those households which could not afford finer forms of art. Because of their low price, Wallace Nutting pictures were purchased in large numbers. By 1925, hardly an American middle-class household was without one as they were purchased as gifts for weddings, showers, Christmas, birthdays, and for just about any other reason imaginable.

Nutting sold many pictures directly through his studios where he also provided his own framing services. But he also sold his pictures through many other outlets as well: department stores, drug stores, and gift shops, all around the country. He even had full-time salesmen on the road whose sole job was to sell his pictures to these retail establishments. Salesmen whom, he claims, sold enough pictures to retire quite handsomely themselves.

The height of Wallace Nutting picture popularity was 1915-25. During this time Nutting had nearly 100 colorists in his employment, along with another 100 employees who acted as framers, matters, salesmen, management, and assorted administrative office personnel. Let there be no mistake about it…Wallace Nutting’s pictures were big business. But by the late 1920’s, people began to tire of Wallace Nutting. As with any other fashion or style, tastes began to change with time. Wallace Nutting pictures became passé and sales showed a steady decline. Even the introduction of different matting styles, greeting cards, pen-type silhouettes, and lower priced machine-produced process prints could not rejuvenate sales.

The Wall Street crash of 1929 and the following depression all but sealed the fate of the Wallace Nutting picture business. Although it remained in operation even after his death, the output was inconsequential after the early 1930’s. Over the years, millions of Wallace Nutting pictures were probably thrown away. Many of those that remain show the signs of 60-90 years of wear after being stored in attics and basements, with water stains, broken glass, dust, dirt, and mildew.

As the original owners of Wallace Nutting pictures have grown older or passed on, their Wallace Nutting pictures have also been passed on to another generation. Some were given directly as gifts, others were inherited by children and grandchildren. Those that weren’t passed along to families were sold at auctions, estate sales, tag sales, and flea markets where they re-entered the collectibles mainstream during the 1975-2000 period.

What are collectors looking for? Just as in Wallace Nutting’s time, Exterior scenes have the widest appeal. Interior scenes have a more limited appeal, but since they are rarer, they typically command a higher price than Exterior scenes. However, we have seen that as America’s fascination with the “Country” look has diminished over the past 5-10 years, interest in Nutting’s Interior scenes has softened as well.

The most desirable pictures to serious Nutting collectors are Miscellaneous Unusual Scenes. These are pictures which fall outside the more standard Interior and Exterior scenes: Architecturals, Children, Florals, Foreign, Men, Seascapes, Snow scenes, and a select few geographical rarities. Nutting’s original sales in these categories were significantly lower than with his Exterior and Interior scenes, hence their “/i>rarity” attracts collectors. Just as in other areas of collecting, the rarest examples, in the best condition, are the easiest to sell, regardless of price. But just as important as rarity and subject matter is condition. Collectors want pieces in excellent condition and imperfections such as water stains, blemishes, poor coloring, or damaged frames can all significantly reduce value.

As of 2010 the Auction record for a Wallace Nutting hand-colored photograph stands at $9,300.00, which is quite reasonable within the high-priced world of Antiques & Collectibles. However, as the economy has softened, so too have Wallace Nutting prices and perhaps 90% of Wallace Nutting pictures are selling in today’s market for less than $150-$200. And many can be had for $50-$75 or less. Which means that if you appreciate Wallace Nutting Pictures, this is probably the best time to buy them in the past 25 years.

My Canon Digital Camera Says "Memory Card Error" – Help!

Many people are asking about their camera displaying them a Memory Card Error message. If you have this kind of problem, don’t worry, because this are frequently problem asked among photographers. Just remember that if this things happen, just do not format the card and do not take any more pictures on it. You should know that your photos are still intact on your memory card, therefore taking more pictures will also writes over the old ones.

So what should we do if you really need to get the pictures off even though your card is possibly corrupt? Here is the few thing to fixed the problem:

First, check your camera maker’s website and see if your recent SDHC card may not work with your older camera. Therefore you probably will need to change your memory card to standard SD cards only (usually those 2GB or less).

Second, you can formatting your card in the camera to correct the problems, but remember formatting the card in the camera will also erase all photos on the card.

Third, make sure that you didn’t accidentally place the tiny locking slide switch on the side of your SD card in the “locked” downward position. The correct “unlocked” position should be slid up toward the direction of the connectors.

There are several additional troubleshooting items to check for the problems of “memory Card locked” or “memory card error”. The important thing to remember is don’t format if you need the pictures and you should receive a message that says, “no images” or “no data” if your Canon was correctly formatted.

Accidentally Deleted Photos From Nokia E71? Try This Tool

Accidentally deleted photos from your Nokia E71 camera phone? Don’t know how to get them back? Accidental deletion is one of the major causes which give rise to unfortunate data loss situations. Thankfully, there are ways to recover lost photos. A Nokia E71 uses micro SD card to store photos clicked from phone’s inbuilt camera. If you delete photos from micro SD card, don’t think they are gone permanently. You can easily retrieve photos from your Nokia E71 camera on your own by using an appropriate photo recovery software.

Sounds too difficult and technical? Well, it is not, such utilities are designed to recover lost or deleted photos from mobile phone’s memory cards in an efficient manner. Even if you are not tech-savvy, you can use them quite conveniently as they come loaded with simple and graphical user interface. All you need to is download and install it on your system and follow the directions.

How can a recovery utility help you?

A photo recovery utility retrieves photos from various storage media under all possible data loss circumstances. You can recover photos from memory cards, memory sticks, digital cameras, camcorders, Zip disks, hard drives, USBs and other removable media in the following situations:

  • Accidental deletion of photos
  • Unintentional or intentional formatting
  • Corrupt storage media
  • Memory card errors
  • File system damage
  • Virus attacks etc

Which picture recovery utility to use?

You may come across various promising and reliable-looking photo recovery utilities on the Internet. But, you should not blindly trust just anyone. Do proper homework and analysis first and then employ a particular software to perform recovery. To be on the safe side, you must always use the download version first in order to get an idea of a software’s recovering capabilities. If you see a ray of hope of getting desired results, then only go ahead with it. Ideally, a good recovery utility for recovering photos from your Nokia E71 phone’s memory card should have the following attributes:

  • It should support recovery of photos irrespective of the file type
  • It should support all brands of micro SD card which your your Nokia E71 uses
  • It should be read-only

Stellar Phoenix Photo Recovery is a comprehensive utility which recovers lost, deleted or formatted photos from all types of memory cards including SD, SDHC, MMC, XD, CF etc. The photo recovery software can be used by both Windows and Mac users as it is available in two versions.

HP Spectre X360 – A Revolutionary Hybrid Laptop

A revolutionary hybrid laptop, the Spectre x360 is quite sleek and shiny with an aluminum design almost similar to a MacBook. Both the lid and the bottom are of aluminum and silver in color. This 2-in-1 measures 14.8 x 9.75 x 0.63 inches. This laptop is not only beautiful, it is also super thin and light making it very easy to carry. A 15-inch screen and very good performance.

Design:

The HP Spectre x360 has been built for endurance and quality. The laptop has a weight of only 1.4 kg. It can easily be carried around on the go. What’s fantastic about this laptop is the hinge. It has been cleverly manufactured and can flip 360 degrees such that the keyboard and screen are back to back effectively turning the laptop into a tablet. When in tablet mode, the keyboard keys are non-responsive so there are no worries about having them touch against the back of the screen. The thinnest of the device makes it also very easy to handle in tablet mode. Another method of using it in tablet mode is to have it placed in an angle with the keyboard acting as a stand. This is fantastic for watching trailers by placing it on top of a desk.

Display:

A 15-inch screen provide very bright images and vivid colors. About 246 nits of brightness more than average, the 2-in-1 will show perfectly outdoors or in direct sunlight. 2560 x 1440-pixel screen resolution. The pixel density is 221 ppi. Multi-touch, everything that a professional would be seeking to be able to undertake the most demanding types of activities. It has a high-end IPS with wide viewing angles. A glossy display is not very outstanding for convertibles but enough to make everything look sharp and nice. The screen has a great response time better than average.

A change that HP has introduced is in the graphic chip. The Intel HD graphic 520 is the successor of the 5500. The 520 allows to play flash games but hardly any intensive games. On the 3D graphics benchmark, it achieves a score of 64,632 which is adequate enough.

Keyboard:

The keyboard feels somewhat shallow. The keyboard is backlit and has a quite nice glow. The keys are full size like most of the laptops and have 1.5 mm of action. When pressed they feel like that of a high-end notebook, they are quite responsive and make sort of a click sound. The touchpad measures 5.5 x 2.6 and feels smooth. It has plenty of room for navigating with the mouse or performing swipe gestures. You would have no problems doing operations such as scrolling, pinching to zoom, etc.

Connectivity:

Included are plenty of ports. The latest version of USB, Type-C, which can also be converted and used as the power supply. On the left side can be found USB 3.0, the headphone/mic jack, an SD card reader while the right side are two other USB 3.0 ports, an HDMI and a mini display port for external monitors. A 1080p webcam can be found on the top of the screen that can be used for taking selfies or for social media. The quality of the pictures is quite good. Colors are bright and images appear sharp but slightly darker than in real life. Missing is an Ethernet port, but this could have been omitted because of the slim design. It has also been designed such as to rely mostly on Wi-Fi for connection to the internet than on wired connection.

With the Band & Olufen Speaker software, the audio is clear and loud.

Performance:

A 2.3 GHz Intel Core i5-6200U central processing unit powers this laptop. It has 8GB of RAM and 256GB of SSD storage capacity other versions can be found with 16GB of RAM. This hybrid has enough performance and storage for performing any type of activity, office and multimedia. HP has provided a choice between two types of processors for the X360 series. The Intel Core i5 or the Intel Core i7-6500U. Both provide fantastic response time allowing for very comfortable work flow. Compared with its predecessors, HP has upgraded the hardware.

The maximum power consumption is between 28.7 -29.9 W which is lower than HP Broadwell model. The battery of HP Spectre x360 has a capacity of 56Wh and would last for about 8hours and 20 minute. It’s not the best between convertibles but considering the fact that it can be used for almost the entire day on the go is convenient.

Software:

The x360 uses Window 10 operating system which is the latest version of windows introduced by Microsoft. HP has introduced a lot of bloatware which if removed can increase storage capacity and performance. The Bang & Olefin Speaker software helps to adjust sound, the HP recovery manager can be used to reinstall drivers and applications and also troubleshoot. Beside those, there are many other apps on the menu some of which such as; Heart radio, Candy Crush soda Saga, Snapfish, Flipboard and others. Many can be uninstalled to increased performance. Microsoft also provide a one-month free trial of Microsoft office.

Pros & Cons:

Regardless, for those who have knowledge of computers, this laptop does not lack its pros can con and one needs to be an expert to actually find something terrible with the x360. If anything making comparison with competitors, it is not the most efficient but average. The hardware and software could be improved particularly with regards to the graphic. The keyboard is great but could use for more security measures like fingerprint or even a stylus could have been included. HP has almost provided quite a great hybrid that can appeal to many consumers. Generally, hybrid is very popular with the consumer as they can be used both as laptop and converted into tablets. The HP Spectre x360 is provided at an average price in the market which for the lack of certain elements such as stylus etc. is quite good.

Expert Witness: Games Console Forensics

Introduction:

In today’s average home there exist many potential sources of digital evidence, from the obvious home PCs and mobile phones to the less common ‘pen-drives’ and PDA’s. All have been subject to comprehensive scrutiny from people involved in the legal process and academics since their properties have been shown to have forensic value. So far comparatively little evidence of investigation into the forensic properties of modern gaming consoles exists, if we consider how they can be utilised in an increasingly ‘PC-like’ manner, this is an area capable of proffering considerable amounts of data with evidentiary value in criminal or civil court proceedings.

Computer forensics is a relatively new discipline combining elements of law and computer science to collect and analyse data from computer systems, networks, wireless communications and storage devices in a way that is admissible as evidence in a courtroom. Gaming consoles now provide the kind of data which can undergo forensic analysis because of the addition of memory (both internal and external) capable of ‘storing’ data beyond mere computer game information.

With the addition of storage capabilities beyond simple game data (i.e. hard drives capable of storing music, video, pictures etc.) gaming consoles are able to utilise ‘web’ functionality and therefore will likely generate both ‘persistent’ and ‘volatile data’ with forensic value. With an increasing amount of media functionality gaming consoles are becoming ‘entertainment hubs’ within the average household.

The machines most likely to provide usable forensic data are the Xbox360 and PS3 and due to their prevalence in homes (combined sales figures for the UK are around six million units) these are the machines where a pattern of use would be similar to more readily accepted sources of forensic data (i.e. home computers).

Microsoft Xbox 360:

This gaming console can support external memory cards for game data and media storage, however these are infrequently utilised because of small size (both physically and in terms of data capacity). The most commonly used memory for the Xbox360 comes in the form of a detachable hard-drive ranging in size from twenty gigabytes to two-hundred and fifty gigabytes (allowing vast amounts of saved music, videos, photos etc.) and is essential in allowing online functionality on the machine. On an unmodified machine this online functionality refers to ‘Xbox live’, the online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service operated by Microsoft. This service allows users to:

• Download content from Xbox live

• Log onto and update social networking and media services such as Facebook, Twitter, Zune and Last.fm

• Add people to ‘friends lists’ for gaming and/or communication

• Send (unsolicited) text/picture/voice messages to other users

Many of the functions performed on the console have a time and date attributed to when the function was performed (or at least when it was last accessed or altered); this could potentially provide corroboration of a defendant’s location at a specified time. The communication possible through use of the Xbox live messaging system can provide evidence of illegal activity as messages are automatically stored for up to 30 days before deletion from the system, however all messages sent via Xbox live are retained on Microsoft servers and recoverable on any console the user profile is signed into, therefore any mention of a crime in a text or audio message would potentially be retrievable by a skilled investigator.

The functionality of the Xbox360 can be extended by modifying the internals to allow the playing of illegally downloaded software (piracy) or an operating system such as Linux could be installed and allow an Xbox360 to have almost all the functions of a PC (and associated data records of activity)

• Full access to the Internet (beyond mere Xbox live)

• E-mail

• Chat logs

• Pirated games

One important detail to note is that, at least from the outside, a modified console and an unmodified console can look exactly the same. While it is true that some members of the ‘modding’ community opt to apply various case modifications to their consoles, many do not, and therefore the console could be mistaken for a standard device.

Sony Playstation 3:

The PS3 is similar to the Xbox360 in terms of potential forensic viability. Large amounts of digital media can be stored on its hard drive, and the PlayStation Network (similar to Xbox live) allows users to send messages much in the same way as with the Xbox360.

There are two key differences between these consoles, firstly, the PS3 has full internet browsing capability ‘straight out of the box’, even an unmodified PS3 would contain more usable data in terms of Internet search history, downloads etc. on both the hard drive and the system ‘data cache’. Secondly, it was possible to install third party operating systems on the PS3 without any modification to the system to enable it; this is currently in dispute in the US courts as this feature was removed by Sony to help prevent software piracy on the machine. Regardless, installing a second operating system (for whatever purpose) is still possible, now requiring some hard drive modification to enable this function, allowing the PS3 almost all the functionality of a PC.

Motion Control – Move & Kinect:

In the final months of 2010 new functionality was added to the PS3 (Move) and the Xbox360 (Kinect), ‘Motion Control’. Using cameras and motion tracking software the console is able to interpret user body movement and replicate it ‘in game’. From an evidential point of view, this provides another type of data to be collected from a gaming console, practically this expands the scope of what data stored on these machines can be used for. The cameras are actually used to record the user of the motion control software at certain points of game activity this can be stored, this could be abused and used to send videos of underage children or obscene videos via Xbox live. The videos could also be used to capture suspects involved in criminal activity, with the videos having a date and time attached, analysis could determine a location, thereby corroborating or disproving the validity of a defendants claim as to their location at the time of an offence.

Nintendo Wii:

The Nintendo Wii currently boasts higher sales numbers than the Xbox360 and PS3 combined. It is seen as a gaming console for ‘non-gamers’ and has lower technical specifications than both of its competitors, as such it is less of target for modification, although data with forensic properties can still be extracted from it. The Nintendo Wii can utilize a first-party Opera-based web browser; bookmarks are retained, and may be worth noting. The Wii also retains a basic, daily log of system usage, and also keeps a contact list of added friends, as well as the messages those friends have sent. Also worth noting is that images may be sent over the player messaging system, which are then saved to the system flash storage or to an external SD (memory) card. As is true of most modern consoles, various distributions of Linux have been ported to the system (Wii Linux), meaning that it could be utilized in the same way as any desktop PC and should be treated as such.

Sony PlayStation Portable (PSP):

A portable game device can be defined as a gaming system that is small enough to be carried outside of the home and runs on batteries. While not as powerful as a console, portable game devices have made significant advances in power since their early days, and may now incorporate functions similar to PDAs. The PlayStation Portable may be used to access the Internet, store images and movies, and can be modified to run 3rd party operating systems, therefore forensic data is recoverable from the memory and ‘data cache’.

Nintendo DS / DSi / 3DS:

All Nintendo DS units can establish ad-hoc wireless connections to other units to utilize a player to player chat program called Pictochat. Pictochat has been used in the past by predators to lure children to them. The DSi incorporates an SD card reader, which may be used to hide illicit materials. The DSi also incorporates a 0.3 megapixel camera which can store images on its internal flash RAM or SD card.

Games Console Forensics in the Real World:

For illustration purposes here are a few real world instances of crimes involving gaming consoles, hopefully illustrating the need to investigate gaming consoles just as thoroughly as more traditional computer forensic targets.

An example of gaming consoles being used in the same manner as a PC and providing usable forensic data would be an incident that occurred in August 2010 in the USA whereby an Xbox live user based in Florida was discovered to have been soliciting naked pictures of a 10 year old boy also using the Xbox live messaging service. Officers recovered the defendants Xbox 360, two computers and a flash drive and discovered sixteen child-pornography images of various boys.

Folsom Police Detective Andrew Bates stated that “parents should realize gaming systems like Xbox and PlayStation, when connected to the internet, can be used as other technology, such as a computer or telephone; users can speak to one another, text, or send photos, thus making these systems another potential threat.”

Useful data recoverable from Xbox live was found in a case where a man surrendered himself to police after threatening a witness against him in an on-going criminal investigation, he was charged with tampering with a witness, intimidating a witness and two counts of second-degree harassment.

There are documented instances of unsolicited indecent images being sent via Xbox live and PlayStation Network, here a couple were sent a message from an unknown user account, upon opening it discovered it contained an indecent image of a young boy and immediately contacted the police. An investigation would be able to determine the time and date this image was received and whether or not it was solicited by the user receiving the image by retrieving previous communications.

N another incident a PS3 user persuaded an 11 year old girl to email him nude pictures of herself (which he subsequently forwarded on to contacts in other US states). No other devices were used to commit these offences and would potentially go undiscovered in an ordinary investigation.

On another occasion a man is accused of grooming several young girls over Xbox live; this was uncovered by the discovery of a mobile phone and recovery of Xbox360 data.

Considering the myriad of ways in which gaming consoles can now provide investigators with usable forensic data it is crucial that the potential rewards of forensic investigation of gaming machines are fully comprehended, and furthermore, that lawyers -whether prosecution or defence – find an expert witness with the necessary skills to support their case. It is possible to commit the types of offences typically associated with a PC on a gaming machine and it possible to retrieve data of equal significance from a gaming machine. Therefore correct seizure and investigation into of these devices should have equal priority alongside other digital storage and communication devices.

Retrieve Deleted Pictures on the Nikon D5000 With Photo Recovery Software

The Nikon D5000 camera is one of the best cameras to own when you want to learn how to take photographs and practice with the technical aspects of a camera, and is much like the other DX cameras that are offered in the market. It is the smallest in size, weight and price of the series. However, it can be sensitive and you may lose photos, when you save on the Single SD card that comes with it. It is a very silent camera, and you may not notice that you are accidentally deleting photos instead of reviewing the pictures.

You will be able to retrieve the photos that you accidentally if you follow these steps. First, stop using the SD card immediately. It is important to understand that the deleted photos are not actually deleted from the SD card; they simply have been tagged to be written over and are hidden from plain view. You will be able to see them again, but in order to do so, you must stop using your card. If you continue to use the SD card and take photos, you will decrease the chances retrieving the deleted photos.

When you are in front of your computer, connect the SD card and see if you can view the photos that you accidentally deleted. The best way to view the contents is to use an SD card reader. This is better than using your camera to connect to the computer. You may be able to find the photos that you accidentally deleted, but if you don’t, you will need the help of a photo recovery software.

When you go online and make a quick search, you will see that there are a lot of photo recovery program that are available to download from the Internet. However, I will talk about the Photo Retrieval 1.70 for PC. You can use the trial version that you can download for free.

Connect your SD card to your computer. Then, you let the photo recovery program run, so it can scan your SD card. It will be able to show the photos that you deleted from your Nikon D5000.

To ensure that you prevent this from happening again, keep your Nikon D5000 in a safe place every time. If you plan to put your camera in the bag, make sure that it has protective casing, so that it will not turn on and delete photos. Keep the SD card and the card unit clean. You should make regular maintenance checks on the camera to ensure that the camera is functioning well, and all the buttons are working properly.